The paper presents the structurc of water consumption as a determinant of environ-mental hazards resulting from various kinds of sewage originating from rural house-holds. The structure determines the volume of water used to satisfy individual needs and also the volume and kind of generated sewage. In result of surveys conducted on a group of 58 households at Włostowice village situated in the Proszowice powiat it was determined that beside water used for domestic purposes (88.7%), which as sewage is discharged to the treatment plants, sewage generated from water used for animal keeping is the main source of threat. In the examined farms on an average 7.6% of total water uptake was used for that purpose. Daily loads of pollution in liquid animal excrements is relation to loads in domestic waste were definitely higher than in relation to water volume used for these purposes. BOD5 loads were respectively 33.3 and 12.2 kg. Similar proportions were found for the other analysed indi-ces. Therefore, beside construction of sewerage systems, activities focussed on the rural environment protection should also involve monitoring and proper utilisation of liquid animal excrements in agriculture.
The necessity of using smali sewage treatment plants in rural emdronment protection B discussed. Short characteristic and efficiency appraisal of 4 such plants, using low-loaded activated sludge. based on 10 month observation havebeen presented.
Since 1 January 2002 all payments for water intake have been governed by an ap-propriate act. The article presents its economic conseąuences for rural water supply systems and water customers, as well as hopes and misgivings it involves. The act assumes 0.08 zl as a unit rate for 1m3 of underground water and 0.04 zl for 1m3 of the surface inland water. These rates may be considered initial as they are increased or decreased using appropriate multipliers. Introduction of the new rates for water intake will cause their increase from 0.0208 zl to the range of 0.024 - 0.192 zl/m3 depending on the water ąuality determined by its treatment method, country area and availability of water resources. As a conseąuence introducing this system the share of payment for water intake in the firm prime costs will increase, the costs them-selves will rise, which will probably lead to an increase in the price of 1 m of con-sumed water. Raised payments may cause some inhabitants to limit or even give up using public waterworks and use individual water intakes instead, it may cause dis-turbances in the mutual relation between the commune (gmina) and water supply system management. Higher payments may lead to water theft and decreased exac-tion of payments for water, limiting or even discontinuing outlays on renovation and proper maintenance of water supply systems. It may finally also cause bankruptcy of some water Utilities.
The volume of water consumed by a household depends on many factors, including among others: the size and profile of household, category of flat furnishing in water supply and sewerage facilities, price for water supply and sewage disposal and the dwellers' habits. Many authors think that the method of sewage disposal is also important. The paper analyses the influence of household connection to the combined sewerage system on the amount of water consumption. Daily water consumption was determined per household and per one inhabitant. Analysed were 20 households located at Mszana Górna village in the Limanowa poviat. The studied period covered 7 years. These comprised 3 years prior to the households' connection, 3 years following the connection and one transitional year when the connection was being accomplished. Before the sewerage system constructing the households discharged the sewage to septic tanks from which after pre-treatment it ran off to roadside ditches or sank into the ground. The analysis did not reveal any significant influence of the houses connection to the combined sewerage system on water consumption amount. Consumption per household increased only by 0.4% and consumption per one inhabitant raised by 2.2%. Both values may be considered negligible because they fall within error limit of water meter indications.
One of the basic problems in sewerage system constructing is proper determination of domestic sewage volume. It is an essential parameter, which if properly assumed later affects the investment and operational costs of the whole system and influences the efficiency of sewage treatment. It is usually assumed that the volume of domestic sewage produced by households equals the volume of used water. However, in small settlements and in the areas where housing is scattered volume of consumed water and the way in which it is utilised are highly diversified. Both national and foreign directives state unitary sewage volume us equal to 150 dm3•Mk-1•d-1. The investigations conducted at Mszana Górna village demonstrated considerable divergence between the actual amount of water consumption and assumed in the projects, which also involves the volume of domestic sewage discharged to the sewerage system. The observed water consumption per one inhabitant on an average reached c.a. 61 dm3•Mk-1•d-1 , which was only 40 % of the assumed value. The difference resulted among others from so called sewage-free water consumption, which may be determined using the structure of water use. In the studied households water used for animal keeping had the main share in this type of use, but it might also be water used for crop watering, car and farm machinery washing and for diluting chemicals used for plant protection.
In the paper has been presented the characteristic of water losses in pipe nets and ice pipes. The methods of their detection and possibilities of their reduction have indicated to improve the rationalization of water management and Financial of water purification plants. Limited number of publication referred to this blem caused that two year production and consumption of such a system near iw have been undertaken and analyzed.