The paper makes an attempt to characterize intangible resources and determine effectiveness of their management in farms grouped in the producers' group. The paper covered 15 plant farms associated in the agricultural producers' group. The research was carried out in the form of a guided survey. Source data from the production year 2013/2014 were analysed. Agricultural information, which as a resource, influences the value of the enterprise and determines the possibility of obtaining competitive advantage, is an example of intangible resources. Agricultural information is a source of knowledge on inter alia market situation, production sources or technical progress. It is also a source of knowledge for a farmer. The investigated farmers expanded their knowledge and skills taking part in various types of trainings, both those carried out by a group and other entities. As much as 80% of the respondents participated in the training on "Crop protection compliant with the integrated production principles". The second was the training on the use of crop protection substances with the use of a sprayer with 33% of respondents taking part therein. The fact that more than half of the surveyed farmers participated in more than one training and one took part in three different trainings should be emphasised. All trainings aimed mainly at raising the farmers' knowledge to realize the most important tasks of the group - production of high quality products with the proper use of intangible resources.
The work includes the analysis of agricultural real estate in the commune of Gdów in 2000-2001. The research compares the transactions done in view of the area of farms selling and purchasing agricultural land, their equipment as far as technical production resources are concerned and sources of income for the farm family.
Paper presented, the results of survey carried out in the firms dealing and distributing agricultural machines and on 35 family farms on the territory of Miechów commune. It was determined what is the level of farms equipment with the technical means of production. The sale of farm machines and tractors was analysed as well as their demand and potential ability of their purchase by the farm owners.
The paper presents the example of application for a market statistical analysis method, used mainly for appraisal of the real estate property and for market value evaluation of the technical means of production. The subject of evaluation was Zetor 9540 agricultural tractor for which a market value was assessed to reflect prevailing market trend on the day of assessment and to relate to the price one could get for the binding purchase agreement.
Comparative analyses of labour consumption, costs and effectiveness of mechanization as well as the net production, were presented for field cultivation of the beans, cucumbers, garlic and onions. The labour inputs on production of the vegetables ranged within 320-2200 working hours/ha, while the costs of mechanization fluctuated from 480 to 2200 PLN/ha, what amounts 14 to 54% total costs of production. Apart from relatively high production costs, the cultivation of tested vegetables is profitable in comparison to traditional agricultural crops.
Paper presented the comparative studies on technical equipment, costs and effectiveness of mechanization as well as the net production in groups of vegetable farms of various production intensity. The studied farms were very good equipped with technical means of production. The reproduction value of farm machinery park ranged within 19043 and 32100 PLN/ha agricultural land. Costs of mechanization amounted from 2711 up to 4456 PLN/ha agricultural land, what means 47.7 up to 56.7% of total inputs connected with production. Apart from considerable production costs, the value of net production was estimated to reach 3431 up to 7714 PLN/ha agricultural land.
The purpose of the work was to determine the level of wear of the most frequently occurring technical equipment in agricultural farms. Comparative analysis of physical and functional wear of the selected elements of the tractor and machinery park in agricultural farms was carried out. The scope of the work covered technical means which constitute equipment of over 200 farms of the Southern Poland. These farms were varied in relation to the area as well as the character of produc-tion. Machines and devices were divided into groups according to generally accepted classification and the research results were presented in particular groups. Average age of the majority of elements of the tractor and the machinery park was reported inter alia as well as a considerable degree of physical wear in comparison to the lower functional wear.
A detailed analysis of the following was conducted: engineering costs of cultivation, production costs, global production costs as well as field cultivation and covered vegetable cultivation costs. Three vegetables were selected for a detailed analysis: pepper, celery and Pekin cabbage. Based on conducted research some other parameters were also determined, and these were: cultivation engineering cost factor, farming engineering effectiveness factor, production cost effectiveness and profitability factors.
The paper presents results of studies carried out for fruit-growing farmsteads divided into groups of different production rate. A scale of costs connected with running a farmstead was determined, including share of costs connected with introducing agricultural technique. A volume and structure of global production, gross income of farm family and selected economic indices characterizing farming efficiency were also specified.
Engaged in field production of vegetables 35 family farms in Miechów district, Kielce province, were examined by the inquiry for the equipment with technical means of production, labour consumption, costs of mechanization and for on assumed index of scientific – technical progress. The farms of different acreage were considered in respect of specialization (cabbage, carrot, parsley and red beet production). Analysis of the results showed that relatively low mechanization index (4-9%) and the specificity of vegetable crop production need much higher inputs of human labour that the typical field crop production. The labour consumption ranged within 285-640 working hrs/ha. The costs of work mechanization at growing vegetables, depending on the equipment with technical means, varied from 230 to 810 PLN/ha what amounted 13-18% total production costs. The index of scientific – technical progress efficiency was much better for root vegetables than for the cabbage production.
The objective of the paper was to analyse the level and effectiveness of using delivery trucks and trucks in horticultural farms. The scope of the paper covers delivery trucks and trucks, which constitute the equipment of 60 agricultural farms, which produce vegetables and fruit, located on the territory of Świętokrzyskie and Małopolskie Voivodeship. The following, inter alia, was determined: annual use, yield, structure of transport works and the use of capacity. It was determined, inter alia, that in the vegetable farms there are more both delivery trucks and trucks per one farm than in the horticultural farms. The transport efficiency of vehicles in the vegetable farms is lower in comparison to vehicles in the horticultural farms.
The objective of the paper was to analyse technical investments in the selected agricultural farms within last five years. The research included both civil structures as well as technical equipment in 40 agricultural farms on the territory of Mazowieckie Voivodeship. The analysis was carried out with reference to the area of agricultural land of a farm and the size of commodity production. It was determined, inter alia, that technical investments in the investigated farms, were financed from many sources, but not all forms of financing concerned all types of investments. Besides, no significant relations between the area of agricultural land or the size of production and the financing source of technical investments was reported.
The work analyzes in details labor expenditures in farmsteads dealing with market fruit-growing production. The farmsteads were divided according to percentage fraction of orchards in UR. For particular groups total labor expenditures, share of expenditures on own and hired labor were determined and a structure of labor expenditures (broken into manual and mechanical works) was presented.
A detailed analysis of the following was conducted: engineering costs of cultivation, production costs, global production costs as well as field cultivation and covered vegetable cultivation costs. Three vegetables were selected for a detailed analysis: pepper, celery and Pekin cabbage. Based on conducted research some it was possible to determine: mechanization cost factor, as well as total labour with listing of particular activities pertaining to vegetable farming.
An analysis was performed of the market and reconstruction value of the farm building structure (poultry house). The two obtained value categories are a result of two independent pricing, done using a paired comparison method, falling into an comparative approach and reconstruction method, included into a cost approach.
As the market of used farm tractors has recently overtaken that of brand-new ones, the question of establishing the value arises, and no unambiguous methodology and professional standards have been so far developed in this domain. An example of application of the method of corrected average price (used mainly for real estate appraisal) for estimating the value of a farm tractor.
Based on the previous micro and macro-economic scale research studies concerning agri-economic rates, not only positive aspects of the suggested and tested methods of assessment of the mechanization level were taken into consideration, but also repeatable methodological weaknesses which ultimately affect the final research results. Thus, this paper suggests methodological changes concerning determination of indicators which decide on the level of the management intensity and in particular of the scientific and technical progress and its effectiveness for individual farms. Numerical data obtained from Małopolskie and Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship were used in the paper.
As the market of used farm tractors has recently overtaken that of brand-new ones, the question of establishing the value arises, and no unambiguous methodology and professional standards have been so far developed in this domain. The present paper, in its scientific nature, should in the first row serve the agricultural practice. The primary task is to obtain answer to the question: how much does it cost and why? An example of application the pair comparison method (used mainly for real estate appraisal) for farm tractor appraisal.
The paper contains analysis of equipping vegetable growing farms with selected technical means of production. The scope of work covered most frequently used farm machinery, including: farm tractors, ploughs, fertiliser distributors and tractor spraying machines. The following parameters are shown: equipping level, age and annual use of the above mentioned technical means in groups of farms divided depending on the share of area used for vegetable growing in total area of arable land managed by a farm.
An analysis of selected technical means of production on fruit-growing farms was carried out. The research included tractors, mowers, and tractor sprayers. The following elements were shown: the amount, age and use of this equipment in fruit-growing farms depending on area of arable land.
The studies involved analysis concerning possession of selected technical means of production in farms running vegetable production. The scope of work included the most popular farm equipment, that is: farm tractors, ploughs, fertilizer distributors and tractor spraying machines. The following has been presented: equipment possession level, age and annual use of the abovementioned technical means in groups of farms divided depending on arable land area in possession of each farm. Among other things it has been observed that the examined farm equipment is advanced in years, and its annual use is insignificant.
The research involved analysis of possession of selected engineering production means in orchard farms. The scope of work covered farm tractors, mowing machines and tractor spraying machines. The following parameters are shown: possession level, age and use per annum of the above-mentioned engineering means of production in farm groups divided according to the share of orchard culture in total arable land area of a given farm.
The level of availability of technical means of production and stock of machines owned by fruit farms has been demonstrated. The occupancy degree of selected technical means of production has been established, together with the cost of maintaining stock of machines in fruit farms.
The article presents the quality assessment of the operation of HEID technological line threshing unit in SAATBAU Sp. z o.o. company in Środa Śląska. Evaluation of the CIMBRIA abrasive machine was made based on the macro and micro damages of seeds, which were made after threshing and through determination of seeds germination capacity and energy. Tests were carried out for five corn varieties: Bosman, Sl Normo, Odilo, Okato, Wikana. The calorymetric method was applied for determination of mechanical damages to seeds. The biggest macro-damages were reported at the level of 4.2% and micro-damages at the level of 14.5%. The increased values of damages occurred after threshing. The highest germination capacity was 96%. On this basis it was stated that the quality of the operation of the threshing unit was within the norm.
The objective of the paper is to analyse the structural and utility properties of the selected elements of the tractor-machinery park. The scope of the paper covers machines and tools, which constitute equipment of 90 agricultural farms located on the territory of Świętokrzyskie and Małopolskie Voivodeship. The assessed equipment includes: agricultural tractors, ploughs, manure spreader, universal seeders, tractor sprayers and combine harvesters. The following were assessed: usefulness in a farm, functionality, mortality, degree of operation simplicity, exploitation costs, availability of spare parts and service, degree of self-service simplicity. It was found out, inter alia, that from among the assessed machines and tools, farm tractors are the most functional in the farmers' opinion and combine harvesters are characterised with high mortality. Moreover, it was determined that generally, considerable age of the agricultural equipment (in each group of machines, there are machines, the age of which exceeded 30 and even 4 years).
The paper presents the results of studies on secondary market for selected technical means of production used in agriculture. Attributes of selected mechanical units are shown, which affect their market value. Correlation analysis was employed to determine the impact of these attributes on market value of the following machines: farm tractor, delivery van/truck, tractor mounted spray machine and potato harvester.
The paper is a detailed analysis of workload in farms operating in vegetable production. The farms have been divided according to two criteria: arabie land (AL) area and percentage share of vegetable in AL. In specific groups the expenditure of the owner and hired labour were determined and the structure of labour expenditure with division into works related with processing, trips to sales markets, animal production, vegetable production and other plant production were presented.
The purpose of this work was to analyse the degree of wear (technical, functional and environmental) and the value of technical means of production in selected fruit-growing farms, compared to farms involved in typically agricultural production.
Field research completed for 180 farms (vegetable-growing, fruit-growing and diversified) allowed to acquire detailed information concerning their possession of both technical equipment and building structures serving production purposes. The scope of the research covered more than 5000 mechanical facilities and almost 900 building structures.
The subject of the work included:
a) mechanical facilities (mechanical tractive force, tools, machines, means of transport, etc.);
b) building structures (livestock and storage buildings, garages, etc.).
In case of the first group, the researchers determined the impact on wear degree of the following parameters: age of the means, scale (arable land area), commodity character of production (vegetable / fruit), storage methods, service quality (independent or provided at specialist plants, carrying out recommended technical surveys).
In case of building structures, the researchers determined the impact on wear of such factors as: age of structures, scale (arable land area), commodity character of production (vegetable / fruit), carried out overhauls / repairs, condition of a structure service environment.
Obtained results were analysed within farm groups divided according to two criteria, that is: arable land area and commodity production volume. Detailed analysis was carried out also for the groups of individual mechanical facilities and building structures. Acquired research material allowed to deter-mine factors deciding about wear degree, structure and rate for technical fixed assets in form of mechanical facilities and building structures in vegetable-growing, fruit-growing and diversified farms. A mathematical model representing physical wear process was developed for selected mechanical facilities.
The work presents comparative analysis of physical and functional wear for eight types of farm tractors popular in Polish farms, manufactured by Ursus, Massey Ferguson and Zetor. The research allowed to determine the wear level for crucial vehicle components and its impact on estimated and presented net replacement value of individual tractors.