The article contains technical description of the tool and the unit used for basic and pre-sowing soil cultivation and sowing: a combined unit for basic non-plough soil cultivation and the cultivation and sowing unit. Results of the research on the efficiency of their use in the soil and climatic conditions of the north and eastern European part of Russia were presented. The analysis of the agrophysical properties of soil showed that the relative moisture of soil in the 0-10 cm layer did not depend on the manner of the basic and pre-sowing cultivation, but in the 0-20 cm layer the decrease of the soil moisture by 0.9-1.4% was reported after the use of KBM -4,2 cultivator and after cultivation with with APPN-2,1 (LSD05=0.63) unit. All the tested units ensured optimal density of the cultivated layer of the sod podzol soil within 1.1-1.3 g∙cm-3. The water content of soil in the cultivation of winter rye in the non-plough cultivation with KPA-2,2 unit was higher by 1.5 mm in comparison to cultivation after ploughing (LSD05=0.51). No differences were reported in cultivation of vetch with oats. A non-plough cultivation of soil was also characterized with better values of indexes of the grain size distribution in comparison to the plough. The use of the cultivation and sowing unit APPN-2.1allowed decrease of energy inputs by 366 MJ∙ha-1 (45.7%) compared to the total inputs on cultivation with KPS-4,0, fertilization and sowing. Sowing with the unit APPN-2.1 influenced the increase of the winter rye yield by 0.88 t∙ha-1 compared to cultivation with KPS-4,0 and plough (LSD05AB=0.8). In the conditions with the use of APPN-2,1 the yield of dry mass of vetch and oats was higher by 0.75 t∙ha-1 compared to the variants with KBM-4,2 (LSD05B=0.39).