The paper presents possibilities of using wheat straw and barley straw as wastes of agricultural sector for energy purposes. Pellet was produced from the obtained biomass and physical and chemical properties in the form of heat of combustion, calorific value and ash content were determined. The study showed that important parameters in the process of pelleting are as follows: the length of chaff of the material and its moisture content level. For wheat straw and barley straw the optimal length of the chaff indicated was in the range of 3-8 mm. The optimum value of moisture content for this process should be 14%. Analysis of the heat of combustion and calorific value showed good energy properties of the researched biomass. For wheat straw the heat of combustion was 17.14 MJ kg -1 and the calorific value was 15.76 MJ kg -1, whereas, for barley straw, these values were respectively 16.40 MJ kg -1, while the calorific value was 15.00 MJ kg -1.