The paper aimed at investigating the influence of technical and economical aspects of biogas production from agricultural sources including the Polish conditions, which affacted implementation of the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. The investigations included the analysis of biochemical and technical problems of biogas production and the development of renewable energy resources in Poland. Operational tests (conducted 2011-2012) of a small biogas plant, with the total capacity of two reactors of 411 cubic meters, have enabled determination of the electricity production cost amounting to 113.76 PLN·MWh-1 and the heat production costs amounting to 206.06 PLN·MWh-1. The construction cost of the biogas plant was 1100 PLN per cubic meter. The exploitation costs of biogas plant were – 42 450 PLN·year-1 as the cumulative costs of: the annual cost of installation maintenance 27 000 PLN·year-1 and the cost of use of the biogas plant – 5 450 PLN·year-1. The calculated profit from the sale of the produced electricity was 100 622 PLN·year-1. The calculation has been prepared in accordance with the prices in Poland in 2011-2012.