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Agricultural Engineerin, 2015, Issue 3 (155)
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155 # 3663
Monitoring of typical field work in different soil conditions using remote sensing – a literature review and some concepts for the future

The objective of the study was to analyse actual possibilities of monitoring and controling different field work such as cultivation, fertilization, harvesting with the use of remote sensing techniques. Moreover, the analysis covered utilization of different type of machinery using remote sensing systems, searching for and collection of data on soil structure in certain agricultural areas and adjusting conditions for development of digital maps. Obtaining data by the use of remote sensing methods is integrated with information concerning spatial variability of soil and plants, which comes from registered units which provide recorded changes of different parameters, having importance from the point of view application in precision agriculture. Precision agriculture guarantees not only obtaining very high and good quality yields but also limits pollution of the natural environment and reduction of production costs. Bands which cover these features can measure iron and other soil components. Thermal bands are used for determination of the stage of plants growth and also for prediction of expected yield. Some plants which are warm and the others which are cool show up difference in thermal bands. Development of precise agriculture contributes to the management of the system by controlling farm machinery during field work, monitoring biomass and crop yields, taking soil samples, dosing mineral fertilizers and pesticides, field crops measurement, monitoring animals, generation of field parcels identification, monitoring farm machinery work. Satellite systems enable obtaining information on the soil structure and different types of crops with feed plants as well.

155 # 3664
Computer image analysis and artificial neuron networks in the qualitative assessment of agricultural products

The increasing use of modern information technology in agriculture involves an ever wider range of production, planning, monitoring and marketing processes. Information technologies are being applied in animal and plant production, and recent decades have witnessed a dynamic growth in research into artificial intelligence and thus into advisory (expert) systems such as artificial neuron networks. Obviously this is not the result of a coincidence or a temporary trend, this dynamic development has been made possible thanks to the rapid advancement of computer technology, allowing ever increasing speeds and volumes of data collection and processing. A large number of research-scientific work with the use of computer image analysis, computer-aided decision making and state of the art modelling tools, including artificial neuron networks, is carried out within the scope of agricultural engineering. The computer-aided decision making process in the area of the qualitative assessment of agri-food products is one of those areas using computer image analysis and neuron modelling. The objective of this research project was to develop and describe a computer image analysis method based on the example of carrots and lyophilisation dehydrates for the purpose of the qualitative assessment and classification of individual categories in the analysed sample in terms of quality.

155 # 3665
The use of neural image analysis in the identification of information encoded in a graphical form

Numerous scientific and research centres are searching for solutions concerning the problem of quality classification of animal oocytes. Conducting such studies is purposeful, particularly in the context of constant attempts to improve the quality of food products, which depends on the breeding value of livestock. Therefore, searching for methods of stimulation of proper development of a larger number of animal oocytes, particularly in extracorporeal conditions, gains special importance. An increasing interest in assisted reproduction techniques resulted in searching for new, increasingly effective methods of quality assessment of mammalian gametes and embryos. The expected progress in the production of animal embryos in vitro is largely dependent on proper classification of obtained oocytes. The aim of this work was to develop a non-invasive method for the quality assessment of oocytes, performed on the basis of graphic information encoded in the form of monochromatic digital images obtained via microscopy techniques. The classification process was conducted based on the information presented in the form of microphotography pictures of domestic pig oocytes, using advanced methods of neural image analysis.

155 # 3666
Methodological approaches to justification of kinematic parameters of volumetric sprayers

The objective of the research is to justify kinematic parameters of volumetric sprayers in order to improve the efficiency of delivery of the process solutions of pesticides onto the objects of treatment. Theoretical research was carried out on the basis of the laws of aerodynamics and mechanics. The results of the theoretical research formed the foundation for the justification of the scheme of a relative position and the main parameters of the air and hydraulic systems of volumetric sprayers.

155 # 3667
Heat storing effectiveness with the use of a recuperator in the liquid type battery

The paper presents results of the analysis concerning the process of storing and discharging the liquid type battery. A system comprising a recuperator, a battery tank, a circulating pump and a ventilator, was analysed. Hot air obtained from the perforated conduits system from the laboratory tunnel was pumped through a recuperator. The heat storing system in the analysed battery cooperated strictly with a stone battery and its priority was to charge it. Tests were carried out from June to August. A detailed analysis included measurement cycles covering both the storing process as well as the process of discharging. Based on the obtained results, thermal power of the exchanger was determined as a function of air temperature difference between the flowing air and water stored in the battery and its flow velocity. Furthermore, quantity relations between the efficiency of work of the exchanger and independent variables of the process: air temperature and water stored in the battery, air flow velocity, process duration and the stream of heat transfer fluid which flows through a recuperator, were determined. Non-linear estimation with the use of quasi-Newton method was applied for determination of these relations. Moreover, the amount of the heat stored in the battery and the heat transferred to the inside of the object were defined. A total coefficient of heat supply with this system was introduced in the analysis. Based on the obtained values of the process performance, it was found out that despite favourable ecological effects, such system of heating support cannot be recommended for horticultural practice on account of a low value of the coefficient. Whereas the use of the storing system for heating process water is justified.

155 # 3668
A functional and task fault-oriented diagnostic system for wheeled tractors

The wheeled tractors that are widely used in various branches of the national economy have a superior design. Various types of faults affect the efficiency of work, increase emissions of hazardous substances and fuel consumption, and affect the safety level and the dynamics of the vehicle. To ensure the appropriate and timely location and repair of faults it is necessary to employ complex diagnostic systems. The study outlines the design of a device used in the diagnostics of the condition of a wheeled tractor. Also, examples of diagnostic algorithms and procedures are also presented. The diagnostic system for the wheeled tractor presented herein considerably improves the reliability of the vehicle and limits the consequences of potential defects. The operator of the tractor is notified immediately after the occurrence of a fault, which prevents further damage to other components of the vehicle and reduces the operating costs. The study also presents the results of tests of the diagnostic facility for wheeled tractors. The results of the tests of the unit were additionally verified by using other diagnostic methods, e.g. with the use of a thermal imaging camera.

155 # 3669
Modernization of a control system of diesel oil and methanol mixture injection in the Diesel engine

The use of diesel oil and methanol mixture in a Diesel engine requires modernization of old fuel injection control systems or development of new ones. Therefore, few options of structural solutions of the fuel injection system have been developed. The objective of the paper was to develop a structure of control elements of fuel injection in a Diesel engine which works with diesel oil and methanol mixtures, diesel oil and biogas mixtures, to check their practical utility and formulate indications. The control systems of multi-fuel Diesel and gas engines as well as two types of submerged high-pressure regulators were discussed. Characteristics of engine power, torque, unit and hour fuel consumption in the function of rotational speed with the use of Diesel D-21A1 engine were defined. The impact of methanol addition to diesel oil on the power and other performance indexes of a Diesel engine were determined. Two structural variants of the submerged fuel regulator were positively evaluated. The described solutions obtained a patent right and a patent protection and have been introduced to production in the Flow Machines Unit in Nikopol (Russia) and are used by the Central Scientific and Research Institute of Diesel Fuels in Saint Petersburg with work on improvement of Diesel engines.

155 # 3670
Effect of the peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) compaction process on the content of essential oils

Herbs have been of great interest in recent years. Peppermint is one of the most popular species in Poland used in the form of herbal tea. The objective of the research was to determine and compare the content of essential oils obtained from peppermint in a loose state and after producing agglomerate therefrom. The scope of the research covered compression of grated peppermint and fractions separated from it. Fractions were separated with the use of a sieve with 2.5 mm square meshes and compressed with a hydraulic press with a closed matrix under the pressure of 193.86 MPa. Before and after the agglomeration process, density of the investigated material and the content of essential oils were determined according to the pharmaceutical requirements by a distillation method on Clevenger's apparatuses. The lowest content of essential oils was in case of the fraction of grated peppermint which did not go through the sieve with 2.5 square meshes. Compression of this material to the level o 1.038 g·cm-3 resulted in the reduction of oil content by approximately 9%. In case of the remaining fractions, no losses of oil as a result of compression were reported.

155 # 3671
Increase of seed cleaning efficiency by better use of air stream properties

A threshing mass from harvesting machines directed to separating and cleaning points, except for seeds, contains a great amount of mixtures including: weed seeds, straw remains and other contaminations. In order to improve efficiency of separating mixtures from seeds, an improved separating cleaner with a closed air circulation was developed. The machine has a wide spectrum of regulation of exploitation parameters, meets the requirements of universality, may be used for various species of grains with a varied degree of seeds contamination with admixtures and meets the ecological requirements which mainly limit dusting.

155 # 3672
Stability of semi-mounted sod seeder motion

Motion stability of an agricultural machine influences, in many respects, its working capacity and performance quality. Investigations into motion stability of agricultural machines in the system with a prime mover (a farm tractor) are of practical importance and a theoretical basis give a chance for a reasonable and matched choice of their design and technological factors and operation modes. The dependencies have been derived to analyze the motion stability of a sod seeder which consists of a frame with boxes for fertilizers and seeds and the drive elements on two support wheels. Rotary openers with a drive are mounted on the frame via a mobile spring suspension bracket. Analysis of the received dependencies shows that in order to maintain stable motion of seeders with active rotary openers, it is necessary to use special stabilizers-scarifiers. They perform additional tilling operations (loosening, slitting, moiling) and are placed behind active working elements of the machine. They create additional resistance compensating the pushing effect of rotary openers. The resistance value depends on the number, design parameters and operation modes of active working elements.

155 # 3673
A new technology of pressing and packing moist fodder grains

Production of rolled preserved grain fodder directly after threshing is one of the most effective methods of processing moist fodder grain. A unit comprising a roller, a grain packing unit, which packs grains into a polyethylene sleeve, and a tractor are used in production of such fodder. For the purpose of further improvement of technical means for technology of fodder preparation, structural and technological schemes of a universal (mobile) roller for dry and moist grain and fodder packing unit to a polyethylene sleeve were developed. A new roller may be used in various configurations: it may be mounted on the fodder packing unit comprising the above-mentioned unit with a drive from a universal joint shaft of a tractor as well as it may be installed on technological lines for fodder preparation with working bodies drive from electric engines. The developed packing unit is equipped with a tracking device and allows a constant process of packing of rolled fodder to the polyethylene sleeve.

155 # 3674
Cultivation technology and grass and legume plants yield in various conditions of soil moisture

The paper provides for results of the three-year research of the impact of soil and climatic conditions on the yield of meadow grass and its mixtures. The objective of the research was to determine the impact of meadows’ sprinkling on the botanical composition of meadow green plants, structure and yield of white and pink clover and grass mixtures with its participation in conditions of north and east region of Belorussia. It was found out that sprinkling is favourable for preservation of valuable grass cultivars in mixtures, in particular legume plants. The composition of mixtures and irrigation considerably influence the yield. Average yield of grass mixtures on the non-irrigated field for the period of three years was 7.68-11.58 t·ha-1. Whereas, sprinkling influenced the growth of the meadow yield by 0.67-2.60 t·ha-1 in relation to the investigated variant. The highest yield was reported in variants of grass mixtures of white and pink clover with tall fescue and reed canary grass.

155 # 3675
Assessment of the repair infrastructure efficiency with regard to maintenance of farm machines

Efficient repair and maintenance infrastructure, which technically supervises machines and devices in production processes, has a significant impact on the improvement of efficiency of the machine and devices application in production processes. In a present situation, with the use of complex and in many cases expensive machines with high structural and quality parameters, users may significantly influence the increase of the degree of their use through optimization of time devoted to efficient repair and maintenance treatments. The fundamental objective of the paper was to analyse the time during which farm machines stay in repair shops during periodical service and maintenance in the aspect of their performance effectiveness. The index of organizational effectiveness designated for assessment of shops which carry out maintenance of machines was determined. The relation between the coefficient of technical use of a machine and the index of effectiveness of the maintenance and repair system organization in a repair shop were determined. A functional scheme of the machine operation system was presented. This scheme in a general aspect covers functional relations of main components of the service and maintenance system of shops in the aspect of quality assessment of their particular subsystems.

155 # 3676
Energy properties of pellet as a renewable energy source of the future

The objective of the paper was to analyse the impact of the moisture level on energy properties obtained by the manufactured heating pellet in the selected enterprise which produces pellets in Lubelskie Voivodeship. Therefore, measurements concerning moisture of supplied biomass and the level of moisture of the manufactured pellet were carried out. The straw pellet production process on the example of the selected enterprise with annual production of 60 thousand tonnes was discussed. During the research period almost 6 thousand tonnes of biomass were supplied to the plant. Moreover, moisture measurements of chaff during the pelletization process were made. Average moisture of supplied raw materials was approximately 19% but the manufactured fuel pellet obtained moisture of approximately 14%. These values are assumed by the company.

155 # 3677
Impact of plant biomass moisture on efficiency, unit energy consumption and quality of pellet

The objective of the paper was to evaluate the impact of moisture in plant biomass designed for pellet production on its heating properties. The research was carried out in a pellet plant, located in Lubelskie Voivodeship. The research consisted in determination of moisture of the supplied biomass and the level of moisture of the manufactured pellet. The paper discusses the straw or hay pellet production process on the example of the selected enterprise with annual production of 60 thousand tonnes. During the period, when the tests were carried out, almost 6 thousand tonnes of raw materials i.e. grain, rapeseed, hay, camomile straw as well as a combination of straw and hay or rapeseed and rapeseed with hay were supplied to the plant. Average moisture of supplied raw materials was approximately 19%. On the other hand the manufactured heating pellet obtained moisture of approximately 14%. These values were within the range of those assumed by the company.

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