Pollution caused by industrial poultry production, which is increasing along with the population growth, is one of the most important environmental problems for developed and developing countries. Particularly in the countries which are leading in the world poultry farming, such as Turkey, share of poultry manure in animal waste is increasing day by day. Due to its amount and characteristics, problems posed by poultry waste are among the priority issues. According to data obtained in 2010, there were 70,933,660 laying hens and 163,984,725 broilers in Turkey and the estimated annual production of fresh manure exceeded 5 million tons. Therefore, development of waste management systems in order to reduce the environmental risks, has become extremely important for poultry industry. Chicken manure causes environmental problems, but also has a significant economic potential. Although there are country-specific methods for the evaluation of chicken manure, evaluation as fertilizer after composting is a common practice across the globe. Also using biogas obtained from waste for the production of energy is one of the common practices. Evaluation of broiler manure as fertilizer in agriculture or burning for heating, are some of the common methods used in Turkey. But in recent years, interest in modern methods such as production of biogas and converting biogas into electrical energy is increasing. In this study, widely used applications for the evaluation of poultry manure in Turkey and development studies of these methods have been examined extensively.
The aim of the study was to identify and assess the impact of four digestive masses obtained from different organic substrates on the content of heavy metals in soil. The study utilized soil derived from fertilizer and equipment. Timothy grass was used as a test plant. The effect of a fertilizer on the analyzed mass was compared with the objects of reference, which were: a control object (without fertilization), fertilized objects with the use of ammonium nitrate, fresh pig slurry and mineral fertilizer YaraMila. Experiment was conducted in quadruplicate, consisting of the total of 76 objects. Based on the survey, it was found that the use of digestive for fertilizing purposes is justified because of its impact on various soil parameters and is comparable to the impact of traditional fertilizers such as manure, ammonium nitrate and mineral compound fertilizers. The use of the digestive did not cause greater accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, than it is in case of the use of ammonium nitrate fertilizer or fresh manure, which further confirms that these products are safe and can be applied alternatively with traditional fertilizers.
As the bulk density of biomass material is low, some problems are encountered during storage, transport and usage of biomass. In order to overcome these problems, densification process is necessary to increase the bulk density of the biomass. Biomass characteristics are improved, the volumetric heating value of biomass is increased, transportation and storage costs of biomass are reduced and the combustion characteristics of biomass are improved by a biomass densification process. Nowadays, pelletizing machines are widely used in the course of biomass densification. During the pelletizing machine's operation, obtaining the high quality compressed biomass with high capacity and less energy consumption is closely related to the pelletizing machine’s design criteria. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate all parameters that affect the pelletizing machine performance. In a laboratory scale, biomass pelletizing and densification tests are carried out by means of simplified pelletizing apparatus. Unfortunately, the tests that are executed by means of these apparatus, because of their operation principle, can not completely illustrate the pelletizing process and the forces which occur during this process. As the current systems which are used to simulate the pelletizing process are not sufficient, in order to clarify, model and optimize the pelletizing process much more effectively and to obtain necessary reliable data for pelletizing machine design, development of a new apparatus is necessary. The requirement of developing a new biomass pelletizing test device and its design principles are explained in this study.
Within 2012-2014 two independent storage experiments aiming at determination of the UV-C radiation impact on the infestation degree of potato tubers with Rhizoctonia solani Kühn were carried out. Potato tubers were radiated in the chamber equipped with a UV-V 15 radiator located over the bottom of a chamber from 0.4 to 1.0 m over the ground using the exposition time within 1 to 60 minutes. Four edible potato varieties with a varied degree of earliness and varied fitness for use and culinary utility of the following tubers: Lord, Owacja, Vineta and Jelly, were used in tests. It was determined that radiation of Owacja tubers before storing caused reduction of Rhizoctonia canker in comparison to the control sample.
The objective of the paper was to evaluate the impact of microwave stimulation of bean seeds on their germination process. Laboratory tests were carried out in 2012-2014 with the use of certified bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of Igołomska cultivar. Shortly before sowing, bean seeds were radiated with microwaves for 10, 30 and 60 seconds. Microwaves came from a magnetron which operated with 100 W power and produced waves of 2.45 GHz frequency. The germination process was described and parameters, which define the sowing value of bean seeds, were determined. Germination ability, relative germination ability (Maguier's index) and average germination time (Pieper's index). Fresh and then dry mass of plant mass were determined. The obtained results allow the statement that microwaves modify the germination process of bean seeds.
The paper deals with analysis of electrical energy consumption by technological lines of particular dairy products in Ciechanow Diary Cooperative in 2011. Ciechanow Dairy Cooperative is an average establishment on account of size. The establishment produces milk, sour cream, cheese and curd, butter, homogenised cheese and yoghurt. Based on data provided by the cooperative, actual indexes of electrical energy consumpton were calculated and compared with the values obtained in dairy cooperatives of the selected EU states. In 2011, the average value of the index of electrical energy consumption in Ciechanow Dairy Cooperative was 46.5 kWh·10 hl-1 of the processed milk. This value is considerably lower than the average one reported in dairy cooperatives in Poland. The highest amount of electrical energy consumed for milk and milk drinks production is in Sweden, the lowest in Poland and Denmark.
The paper aims at determination of parameters, approximate to optimal, of pneumatic separation of the mixture of wild cornflower dried petals obtained by mechanical harvesting. Moreover, the investigated raw material contamination was assessed through comparison and identification of various groups of contaminants and undesired components of the mixture in the basic raw material. Separation was carried out in a horizontal air stream with the use of the designed pneumatic separator. The most efficient and effective was the process of petals separation at the air stream velocity which was 4 m∙s-1. The amount of the obtained clean petals from the mixture in case of a fraction with bigger dimensions was 48.3%. With the increase of the air stream velocity the coefficient η increases but along with this, the amount of a valuable fraction, which is taken by the stream, grows. At the growth of air stream velocity from Vs=4 m∙s-1 to Vs=6 m∙s-1 (within the same size fractions), the highest increase of the coefficient η was in case of the fraction of 400÷500 μm and was 48.3%.
The microclimate in livestock buildings is very important for health and welfare of farm animals, as well as for the efficiency of livestock production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microclimate based on measurements of the selected parameters in a two-storey, fully-slatted piggery from July to October 2013. For five selected days, temperature and relative humidity inside the building, the concentration of NH3, CO2 and N2O and air exchange were recorded. The evaluation of temperature and humidity conditions showed that in the monitored piggery, pigs can be exposed to heat stress. The duration of adverse conditions can be as high as 80% of the day in the summer season. Mean daily NH3 concentrations ranged from 5.92 to 19.51 ppm, and were lower than the limit of 20 ppm. The analysis of the daily distribution of ammonia concentrations showed that in the autumn they were higher than the limit for 40% of the day. Daily average values of CO2 concentrations ranged from 1092 to 2407 ppm, and were lower than the limit of 3000 ppm. Average daily N2O concentrations ranged from 0.48 to 0.82 ppm, and did not negatively affect the comfort of the animals.
Elimination of light additives in the dust form from seed material is a significant problem of post-harvest seed processing since leakage of pneumatic machines systems for cleaning seeds enables dust to get outside which deteriorates the ecological condition of the surroundings. The article presents a developed machine for initial seeds cleaning, which divides air waste into fractions of seed and waste additives and purifies the air which circulates in the closed pneumatic system from silt additives, which deposit in the depositions chamber with difficulties. Models of regression of the functioning process of the developed machine were presented. Rational parameters of the inlet window of a dust collector (Δ = 0.03 m, δż = 0.012 m, Sż = 0.16 м, βP = 155°) and the edge of the partition wall of compartments of light fractions deposition (х = 0.21...0.23 m and у = 0.160...0.175 m) were determined. The developed machine improves the ecological condition of the environment concerning post-harvest seed processing systems.
The basis for obtaining high performance in cattle breeding is correct feeding. Production of a wholesome ration is labour consuming and expensive. Thus, work related to searching for alternative methods of production of wholesome feed is carried out. Synthesis of low value raw material, as a result of which high protein content feed is produced, is one of the methods. A fermentation process takes place in conditions, which cannot be ensured by presently used machines and aggregates. A fermentor, which enables obtaining feed with high content of protein from low value raw material at minimum expenditures, was developed. One of the conditions of correct course of synthesis is ensuring appropriate temperature of feed, where micro-organism develop. The objective of the paper is to determine optimal values of factors which affect energy consumption during feed heating. The result was to obtain the regression model which is characteristic for unit changes of energy consumption during feed heating, with the use of which, an optimal angle of embracing the container with a heating belt (159°) and the level of filling the container with feed (100%) were determined. Minimal value of optimization criterion at such values of indexes is 5.14 kJ·(kg·°C) -1.
In the paper, an attempt towards morphological analysis implementation into grain physical features extraction, with the use of APR software, has been presented. The main objective of the research is to determine the physical characteristics of wheat grains in order to assess the automatic grain quality review. Photographic macro images of wheat grains were taken for the purpose of this study, and then they were processed using the APR application. Properly prepared graphic material has been subjected to segmentation and morphological analysis. Parameters derived from morphological analysis are presented synthetically and form the basis for further research focused on statistical analysis.
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the spray boom height and liquid pressure on airborne drift during spray application. A lift mounted sprayer with a 12 m spray boom and standard flat fan nozzles LU 120-03 (Lechler) was used in the field trials. The treatments were made for all combinations of the boom heights 0.35, 0.5 and 0.75 m, and liquid pressures 0.15, 0.3 and 0.5 MPa. For each treatment the sprayer was driven at the velocity of 6.0 km∙h-1, five times over the distance 60 m. The fluorescent dye BSF was sprayed and collected on the samples attached on 4 m masts. The analysis of BSF deposition on the samplers proved the significant effect of both the boom height and the liquid pressure on the airborne drift. The lowest drift was observed for the pressure of 0.15 MPa regardless the boom height. For these parameters the drift was reduced by 50% compared to the standard situation with the boom height of 0.5 m and the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Raising the boom up to 0.75 m and the pressure to 0.5 MPa resulted in 270% increase of the drift.
The objective of the paper was to verify the structure of the system for regulation and stabilization of absolute pressure, which supplies the autonomous milking unit. The described milking unit constitutes a modern technical solution which enables separation of suction pressure from the transporting one; moreover it enables measurement of the volumetric intensity of milk outflow from the cow udder quarter. The scope of the paper included: construction of the pneumatic supply system of the milking machine, development of the concept of control system, programming a PLC controller for the accepted control algorithm (basing on the previous scientific research of authors) and verification of the system operation on the laboratory stand. The main element of the control system is a microprocessor controller, where an algorithm of suction pressure control was implemented with the use of fuzzy logic; all calculations used for controlling this size are executed there. Results of the experimental research allowed a positive assessment of the described technical solution. The structure needs to be verified in milking conditions, however, research works emphasised positive effects with regard to stabilization of pressure supplied under a teat.
The paper aimed at investigating the influence of technical and economical aspects of biogas production from agricultural sources including the Polish conditions, which affacted implementation of the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. The investigations included the analysis of biochemical and technical problems of biogas production and the development of renewable energy resources in Poland. Operational tests (conducted 2011-2012) of a small biogas plant, with the total capacity of two reactors of 411 cubic meters, have enabled determination of the electricity production cost amounting to 113.76 PLN·MWh-1 and the heat production costs amounting to 206.06 PLN·MWh-1. The construction cost of the biogas plant was 1100 PLN per cubic meter. The exploitation costs of biogas plant were – 42 450 PLN·year-1 as the cumulative costs of: the annual cost of installation maintenance 27 000 PLN·year-1 and the cost of use of the biogas plant – 5 450 PLN·year-1. The calculated profit from the sale of the produced electricity was 100 622 PLN·year-1. The calculation has been prepared in accordance with the prices in Poland in 2011-2012.
The aim of this article is to assess the impact of Lean Manufacturing tools on the work organization of two selected manufacturing company’s departments. In order to determine the effectiveness of lean concept, organizational measures were presented. They were to improve production process efficiency of the analyzed departments. The following were analyzed: standardization of the selected worksites and time reduction of tasks performance in a production process during a changeover. The study confirmed a research hypothesis that implementation of Lean Manufacturing tools guarantees time and resources savings, improves company’s operation, eliminates waste.