The paper presents the study, which aimed at determining how moisture content of barley grain and the size of the grain crusher working gap affect changes on the embodied energy during the flaking process and properties of the obtained flakes. Thus, the barley grains of Barke variety were moisturized up to the level of 14, 18, 22 and 26%. Then grains were subjected to flaking, and at the same time the embodied energy was measured. The next step was to evaluate the physical properties of the product such as: angle of repose, chute angle, bulk and shaken density. Also a mesh analysis was applied. Moreover, the absorption coefficient of water has been evaluated for each series of products. As stated, the size of grain crusher working gap significantly affects changes of the embodied energy during the process. The lowest values were registered for 2.0 mm wide gap. As observed, the moisture content of grains affects the physical properties of the product. It should also be noted, that during the flaking process of grain with moisture content of 14%, the significant amount of flour is obtained.
This work presents theoretical and empirical analysis of the usefulness of the selected geometrical models, for the purpose of determination of the sugar beet root shape, based on the available root parameters: diameter, length and the bulb root height. Analysis covered four models in the form of: a spherical sector, composed of a conic and a half of a sphere, composed of a conic and a spherical cap, composed of a conic and a half of an ellipsoid. Within the scope of the assumption of this paper it was proved, that the shape of a tap-root can approximate the simplified model comprising a conic and a half of an ellipsoid.
Extrusion-cooking technique, known from food processing, may be used in production of environmentally friendly foamed materials based on starch. The objective of the paper was to determine the specific mechanical energy consumption of the extrusion-cooking process of foamed materials made of wheat starch at a varied level of moisture of raw materials mixtures and varied participation of foaming components. Functional additives which support the foaming process were applied: PDE foaming agent and polyvinyl alcohol. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SME) was determined according to the moisture content of raw materials and additives used. Energy consumption of the extrusion-cooking process of foamed materials with addition of the foaming agent PDE was increasing along with the increase of moisture and decreased at higher participation of the additive. In case of mixtures with an addition of polyvinyl alcohol the values of SME were getting higher along with the increase of the additive content and moisture of raw materials mixture. The research proved possibility of obtaining starch foamed packaging materials, which may function as a filler in transport packages, at the high efficiency of the process and low energy consumption.
The paper presents the results of obtaining radish and onion seed on an organic farm and the results of processing seeds after harvesting. The proposed technology of seeds preparation for sowing involves processes of hydraulic separation, washing and leaching, drying, calibration, inoculation and coating. Plants were protected with preparations authorized for organic farming. Obtained organic seed material is consistent with current quality requirements.
The operating system of cooling and freezing by impingement and impingement fluidization techniques was modified using oval cross-sectional air jet nozzles at three different configurations of air distribution. The air jet exit velocity at different preset values of 30-50 m∙s -1 as well as the velocity of air rebound from the operating chamber bottom were measured by applying three heads with oval nozzles and one with classical nozzles for comparative purposes. All of the nozzles had the same cross section. Freezing tests of French fries were performed in these conditions. An analysis of the rebound air velocity fields indicated that both an oval nozzle design and air velocity at the nozzle outlet determine the rebound air velocity. It was found that the limited use of oval nozzles at the impingement fluidization freezing process is possible and that 40 m∙s -1 was the most appropriate velocity for air jets leaving the nozzles.
The article presents an innovative mixing-densifying-dosing system of a pelletizer, which feeds plant material to the densifying system. The structure of the system allows simultaneous realization of the mixing operation as well as non-pressure compression of powdery fractions of the processed material. The paper also sets forth results of the presented system. The tests included determination of the rotational speed of the internal cylinder of the system (25, 40, 55 rot·min-1) and mass intensification of the densified raw material flow (4, 8 and 12 kg·h -1) on the amount of the pelletized fraction. Fine-grained waste of nettle from Herbapol plants in Białystok was used as a research material. The tests which were carried out allowed determination of the mixing-densifying -dosing system for initial densification of the fine-grained plant material (nettle waste) before feeding it to the working system of the pelletizer and allowing elimination of the finest fractions of the crumbled plant material by its non-pressure compression during mixing.
The objective of the paper was to find a relation of the content of simple sugars in a potato tuber and its resistance to mechanical loads. The following potato tuber varieties were investigated: Kuras, Gala, Agata, Ditta, Arrow, Roko and Raja. A force damaging periderm, external and internal damages ratios and mass damages determined potato tubers susceptibility to mechanical damages. Measurement of the sugar content in the potato tubers was carried out with a refractometer. A statistically significant relation, measured with the value of the coefficient of correlation, between the content of simple sugars and susceptibility to internal damages was determined only in potato tubers of Kuras and Raja varieties.
The increasing crop production costs force to search for alternative cultivation methods of particular crop species, which would reduce production costs and obtain higher income at similar yield. The objective of the research was to evaluate the economic efficiency of maize production for grain. The scope of research covered a simplified and traditional technology of maize cultivation for grain. Maize production costs and costs of fuel, human work, materials and raw materials as well as operation of machines and tools used in the investigated technologies, were calculated. Revenue and income from maize production in the investigated farms were determined. The research, which was carried out, shows that a higher value of the economic efficiency ratio was obtained in the simplified technology of production, where it was at the average of 2.06. Whereas, in the traditional technology, average value of the evaluated ratio was 1.91.
Research work was conducted in 4 tied-up cattle barns with herd size 44.85-109 LU. It covers analysis of preparation and discharge of feed using machinery and equipment involved in this treatment. It also presents specified exploitation costs of machinery and equipment in livestock buildings and components of these costs such as maintenance cost and annual utilization of the machines. Also specified labor costs during treatment of feeding were described.
The objective of the article was to show exploitation costs from three cattle barns in a non-litter loose housing system. The method was based on the multi criteria approach which referred to following factors: technical, technological (mainly energetic and labour), economic (costs of energy, labour, investment). Within technical assessment, the building characteristics was carried out which pertained to the areas of productivity, building, laying and cubage. In order to carry out technological assessment, all methods of mechanization were analysed and as a result, energetic, energy and investment inputs were obtained. Exploitation costs of machinery, equipment and cattle barn buildings were calculated according to the methodology developed in IBMER [Institute for Construction, Mechanization and Electrification in Agriculture]. The lowest exploitation cost was in a cattle barn with a traditional “herring bone” milking unit and amounted to 2 132.01 PLN·year-1·LU-1. The highest exploitation costs amounting to 2 670.65 PLN·year-1·LU-1, were in a cattle barn with one milking robot and the lowest herd size.
The objective of the paper was to determine usefulness of a new, prototype pelletizing and briquetting device for the process of briquetting waste vegetal material. During research the impact of potato pulp content (15, 20 and 25%) in the mixture with buckwheat husk and the mass intensity of raw material flow (100, 150 and 200 kg·h -1) on the demand of a device for power and kinetic strength of the obtained briquette were determined. Tests on briquetting were carried out with the use of a flat briquetting matrix with a diameter of meshes of 28 mm and the length of 80 mm cooperating with the system of three densifying rolls, which move with the speed of 120 rot·min -1 and with the fissure between the rolls and the matrix equal to 0.4 mm. The quality of briquettes was assessed with the use of a rotating tester according to recommendations of standards GOST-18691-73 and ASAE S.269-1A. Based on the research which was carried out, a significant impact of the mass intensity of raw material flow and the percentage share of potato pulp in the compacted mixture for the power demand and kinetic strength of the obtained briquette was found.
Results of tests on working resistance of cultivation units and cultivation and sowing units used in various systems of soil cultivation. The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of speed of cultivation units and cultivation and sowing units on working resistance including diversity of previous cultivation systems. Properties of soil on the analysed fields, where different cultivation system was used, was characterised with the use of physical and mechanical properties of soil such as: moisture, compactness and maximum shear stress. Working resistance was determined for: a stiff tine cultivator, a disc harrow and a cultivation and sowing unit used in the direct sowing technology. Working depth was determined for all units as equal to 0.05 m. Measurements of working resistance were carried out with the use of two tractors connected with a haul, where strain gauge force transducer was mounted. Significant impact of the used unit and working speed was determined, whereas no impact of the previous soil cultivation system on the measured working resistance was reported.
The paper presents a new system that stabilizes a sprayer boom in the vertical plane. The presented system is protected by patent law. The article shows, inter alia, the idea and principle of operation of the stabilization system of the sprayer boom which uses the centre of gravity of the sprayer boom frame suspended on the beared axis of a sprayer. The angle of deflection of sprayer boom arms depends on the height/depth of an obstacle for tractor wheels. The stabilization system is designed for use with a field suspended sprayer and is one of the systems based on passive elements. The main design assumption was to develop a system that ensures a satisfactory level of stabilization of a boom and maintaining acceptable production costs. The presented solution is prepared for realization and for carrying out field research.
Agricultural tractors produced in the twenty-first century will require high-quality services related to their servicing. The aim of the work is to obtain information on the distribution of demand in each month for maintenance services of agricultural machinery based on the service facility located in Wielkopolska Region. The paper presents the analysis of the demand for warranty and post-warranty services for farm tractors over the year. The results have been developed statistically in order to determine the period of greatest demand for service. In the form of histograms quarterly distributions of values of the demand for warranty services, guarantee services and the total number of service were presented. The results have been analysed in terms of time limits for performance of agrotechnical treatments recommended for vegetable crops in Poland.
The objective of the paper was to evaluate the impact of biomass subjected to pelleting and diameter of pressing openings of a matrix of a pelleting machine on unit consumption of energy and quality of pellets. Virginia mallow biomass (Sida hermaphrodita R.) was investigated. The pelleting process was carried out on a pelleting machine with a flat matrix with the set of pressing rolls. Matrices with three diameters of pressing channels 6, 8, 10 mm were used for pelleting. Pelleting attempts were carried out at the material moisture which was 10, 15 and 20%. It was found out that energy consumption of the process of pellet production from Virginia mallow biomass depended on the raw material moisture and on diameter of pressing channels in the matrix of a pelleting machine. Unit consumption of electric energy during the pelleting process was within 45.3 and 70.2 Wh·kg-1. The lowest value was reported for moisture of 15% and diameter of pressing channels of 10 mm. Durability of the obtained pellets was within 88.9-93.5% of pellets. The highest durability was in case of pellets obtained at the moisture of 15% but higher durability was obtained at lower diameters of pressing openings. The highest relative density was in case of pellets obtained at the moisture of 15% and it was 1133.6-1094.8 kg·m -3 but density got reduced along with the increase of a diameter of channels.