The paper includes evaluation of the sources of acquiring information in agricultural farms by farmers. The research was carried out in 2012 in the form of a direct survey of owners of 102 agricultural farms located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. A survey questionnaire, which consisted of two parts, was a research instrument. The first one concerned information on the farm owner and a farm and the second part of the questionnaire consisted of questions related to the manners of acquisition of information sources and their evaluation. The research which was carried out proves that shows and exhibitions are the weakest information sources according to the evaluation (10%). Information obtained from the Commune Offices (16%) and the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture (18%) were evaluated as a weak source of information. However, a direct contact with friends and neighbours (42%) and agricultural advisers (59%) seems to be a popular source of information. The Internet, as well as radio and television, each reach more than 70%. Specialist press and guides were evaluated very high (above 80%). According to the investigated group, agricultural journals are the most significant source of information in the plant and livestock production and information on agricultural machines and devices. In the evaluation of the access to various types of agricultural information as much as 58% said that it is on a very good level, 30% of respondents evaluated it as good and only 12% of the respondents claimed that the access to various types of agricultural information sources is at a fairly good level. Any of the questioned farmers did not claim that the access to information is bad.
A survey concerning provision of milk farms with production means in Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship was carried out in 2013 in the group of 80 farmers. Based on the survey, it should be stated that farmers define themselves their purchase needs and they start with planning the material needs. They search the market for possible suppliers and then place an order with a selected contractor. In the end, after they receive goods, they evaluate the quality of the service. Farmers more eagerly place orders via Internet. The research shows that farmers have high negotiating skills because they always ask for discounts when ordering. They also negotiate terms concerning orders, when they order big batches and control the received raw materials in order to evaluate the service. In milk farms maintaining the liquidity of supply in production means is significant. The research shows that more than half of farmers place orders a month before the stock depletes. Only a few farmers declared that they place orders for particular goods only when they need it. Some of them even were in favour of purchasing bigger batches in order to store the remaining part and avoid cyclic smaller orders.
Forces acting on the sugar beet combine plough are caused not only by physical properties of soil (e.g. its compactness) but also by physical properties of the harvested crop (i.e. sugar beets). A current theory on rooting out sugar beets has included only physical properties of soil along with physical and geometrical parameters of the ploughing mechanism. The article presents a mathematical model of mechanical influence of the soil layer together with the mass of sugar beets roots on the beets ploughing element. Mathematical formulas of the developed theory were verified with exemplary calculations for the accepted working parameters of the sugar beets harvesting combine (inter alia working speed, working depth).
The article presents the quality assessment of the operation of HEID technological line threshing unit in SAATBAU Sp. z o.o. company in Środa Śląska. Evaluation of the CIMBRIA abrasive machine was made based on the macro and micro damages of seeds, which were made after threshing and through determination of seeds germination capacity and energy. Tests were carried out for five corn varieties: Bosman, Sl Normo, Odilo, Okato, Wikana. The calorymetric method was applied for determination of mechanical damages to seeds. The biggest macro-damages were reported at the level of 4.2% and micro-damages at the level of 14.5%. The increased values of damages occurred after threshing. The highest germination capacity was 96%. On this basis it was stated that the quality of the operation of the threshing unit was within the norm.
The concept of construction and testing the slot dispensing assembly for pneumatic and mechanical drills appeared during implementation of the development project No. N R003 0021 06/2009 at Poznań University of Technology. The paper contains the results of laboratory studies aimed at clarifying the impact of such factors as the type of grain, use of mixers, pressure in the seed tank to the seed rate of wheat and oats in the slot dispensing assembly. Laboratory tests were performed on the prototype of the pneumatic drill constructed at the Department of Working Machines with a built-in slot-dispensing assembly. For the same width of the slot opening, the dispensed amount of wheat seeds is dosed almost twice than the oats seed grain. The tests proved that the dosage in the unit dispensing slot would be impossible without the use of a mixer. Further research is planned for the slot dispensing assembly for other types of grains, small grains such as rape, in order to verify the usability and scaling the amount of sowing the seeds for a given slot opening.
The analysis concerns the size of the ventilation air stream, which is variable in time, in a cowshed with natural ventilation. The research was carried out in two buildings designed for dairy cattle, one has ventilation ducts, the other an air vent. The research covered measurement of internal and external air temperature, which is variable in time, air flow temperatures and velocity in air vents and the wind velocity. Temperature and velocity of air flow in particular ducts differed between each other. In the winter season, average air temperature in ducts was lower than the air temperature in the zone where animals stayed. The ventilation air stream size resulting from the measured flow velocities in ventilation ducts was compared to the theoretical size.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the selected operating parameters of the two types of orchard sprayers on vertical distribution (expressed as spray percentage share in 50-cm segments) and quantitative changes in vertical distribution of spray measured on a vertical separator of drops. The study included measurements of vertical distribution of spray for two different settings of nozzles, two types of nozzles and two fan rotational speeds. Vertical distribution of spray depended significantly on the spray emission system, the configuration and the type of nozzles and in the slightest degree on the fan rotational speed. The smallest share of liquid fell on the edge segments (≤ 5.22%) and the largest on the middle ones – 29.33%. The change in the configuration of nozzles significantly affected the change in the spray vertical distribution (by the spray displacement between the 50-cm segments). The greatest changes in vertical distribution of spray – as affected by the nozzle configuration change – was observed for the sprayer with the horizontal spray emission with a maximum change in one segment of 14.0% (an average of 7 segments: 5.38%).
The purpose of study was verification regarding quality of wind speed forecasts used during designing the wind farm capacity, with AAN [artificial neural network] methods and Brown, Holt, Winters and ARIMA time models. Analysis included results of forecasts for December, namely a month with the biggest wind speed amplitude changes, considering data for period of 2008-2009. Analysis of results confirmed that appropriate linear models and artificial neural methods for the period of wind speed forecast may ensure good results regarding forecasts of wind power output generated by wind farms.
Pig production has high energy consumption thus the energy efficiency of a building is very important. The objective of this paper is a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of thermal properties and thermal bridges in the structure of a newly constructed piggery. The results prove unsuitable thermal properties of the majority of structures. Characteristic thermal properties: external walls (UT=0.470 W∙m-2∙K-1), flooring (UT=1.356 W∙m-2∙K-1), ceiling (UT=0.229 W∙m-2∙K-1), windows and doors (UT=1.70 W∙m-2∙K-1). Qualitative detection of thermal defects with utilization of infrared thermography claimed the most significant thermal bridges on uninsulated socle and flooring, steel concrete straining band of the wall, bearing steel roof frames and window and door frames. The energy efficiency of buildings is significantly affected by the built structure properties and some structures of the measured buildings had low thermal insulation and caused high heat losses.
Contemporary research and production activity require searching and collecting a variety of information, this also applies to issues in the field of agriculture. Today, the vast majority of resources are available in a digital form. FAO on the portal of the Agricultural Information Management Standards presents an AgroTagger, tool for indexing documents in the field of agriculture, which is designed for the English language. Extraction of knowledge is not very convenient in languages such as Polish language with a very extensive inflection. In Polish, the following parts of speech inflect: verbs, nouns, numerals, adjectives, and pronouns. Proper indexing requires an initial reduction of grammatical forms, to which the authors have used the dictionary of the Polish language and have developed a programme of reducing. Moreover the algorithms for determining weights corresponding to the validity of the appointments taking into account the prevalence of terms and their position in the document were developed and implemented.
The paper is an attempt to determine mutual relations between the length and type of activity related to intellectual work and the degree of mental fatigue and the heart rate reserve. The tests were carried out on the group of 25 persons, who through realization of particular training stages concerning operation of modern farm tractors through special logical tests and measurement of the heart rate generated information on the mental fatigue and stress during the experiment. It was found out that along with the increase of the duration of intellectual work, the time necessary for accomplishing a logical task and number of mistakes increases. It was also reported that with each test of a similar logical structure, the stress factor decreased and the process of learning took place in case of learning persons. Thus, during the last measurement, the investigated group obtained relatively better results than in the previous test.
It is estimated that in the European countries approx. 27% of people works for more than half time of their work in a tiresome position resulting in muscle pains, which may disturb coordination of the posture, which increases the risk and possibility of error during operation of the machine. The tests concerned estimation of the risk of the muscoskeletal system disorders of workers who operate on particular work stations, which constitute a technological line for production of geotextile. Moreover, an attempt to improve organization of work was made in order to minimize the impact of the unfavourable postural system of a man on his/her health. Using the "OWAS" method (Ovako Working Posture Analysis System) the size and structure of loading of the workers' musculoskeletal system was determined. It was reported that on all work stations, which constituted the subject of the research, the 1st category of evaluation, where loading with the statical work was average but acceptable, prevailed.
Research was carried out on light soil in 2010-2012 on plantations of a willow tree (Salix Viminals founded in Spring 2010. The objective of the paper was to assess a response of two cultivars – Sprint and Boks of common osier on organic and mineral fertilization in light soil. The experiment included two varieties - Sprint and Boks and three fertilization combinations: without compost 0, 10 and 20 t∙ha-1 of dry matter of compost produced from urban greenery waste. In facilities under experiment the following were used every year in the form of mineral fertilizers: 100 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 100 kg∙ha-1 K2O. Detailed research included: the number of shoots on the plant, thickness of shoots on 10 cm height from the surface of soil and length of shoots and the yield of fresh and dry matter. Boks variety in all fertilization combinations formed less shoots on a plant but with a greater thickness and length in comparison to Sprint variety. Boks variety also characterized with greater production potential, reacted with higher increase of fresh and dry matter yield after the use of compost in 10 and 20 t∙ha-1 doses compared to mineral fertilization.
The paper presents the level of incurred labour inputs and the equipment in the form of production means in 46 family farms listed according to the intensity of production organization. The obtained results were presented with a table and description method. The analysis which was carried out proved that along with the intensity of production organization the number of physical workers increases in farms with simultaneous decrease of AL area. The investigated farms featured quite variable size of participation of capital calculated into the replacement value of mechanization means per a hectare of agricultural land. A positive average correlation between intensity of production organization and objectified work inputs and a weak correlation between intensity of production organization and human work inputs were determined.
The article contains technical description of the tool and the unit used for basic and pre-sowing soil cultivation and sowing: a combined unit for basic non-plough soil cultivation and the cultivation and sowing unit. Results of the research on the efficiency of their use in the soil and climatic conditions of the north and eastern European part of Russia were presented. The analysis of the agrophysical properties of soil showed that the relative moisture of soil in the 0-10 cm layer did not depend on the manner of the basic and pre-sowing cultivation, but in the 0-20 cm layer the decrease of the soil moisture by 0.9-1.4% was reported after the use of KBM -4,2 cultivator and after cultivation with with APPN-2,1 (LSD05=0.63) unit. All the tested units ensured optimal density of the cultivated layer of the sod podzol soil within 1.1-1.3 g∙cm-3. The water content of soil in the cultivation of winter rye in the non-plough cultivation with KPA-2,2 unit was higher by 1.5 mm in comparison to cultivation after ploughing (LSD05=0.51). No differences were reported in cultivation of vetch with oats. A non-plough cultivation of soil was also characterized with better values of indexes of the grain size distribution in comparison to the plough. The use of the cultivation and sowing unit APPN-2.1allowed decrease of energy inputs by 366 MJ∙ha-1 (45.7%) compared to the total inputs on cultivation with KPS-4,0, fertilization and sowing. Sowing with the unit APPN-2.1 influenced the increase of the winter rye yield by 0.88 t∙ha-1 compared to cultivation with KPS-4,0 and plough (LSD05AB=0.8). In the conditions with the use of APPN-2,1 the yield of dry mass of vetch and oats was higher by 0.75 t∙ha-1 compared to the variants with KBM-4,2 (LSD05B=0.39).
The object of the research is to analyze the politics and economics of the solar energy sources in Ukraine. Application of alternative energy sources in Ukraine, especially solar energy, is extremely promising. The adopted strategy of power by 2020 assumes that Ukraine should play an important role. The methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis were used to assess the level of theoretical studies. The analysis of solar energy enabled to get the result of historical research and forecasting functional areas for possible development paths. The advantages and disadvantages of solar energy were posted. Fundamental directions and applied research in Ukraine related to the development of solar energy. The dynamics of the solar industry in Ukraine was posted. Practically in almost all regions of Ukraine, the investment projects aimed at creating plants that run on solar energy are implemented actively. At various stages of implementation in Ukraine there are more than 100 solar power projects with the total capacity of over 1380 MW in all regions of the country.
Many initiatives have been taken to reduce the environmental impact of the livestock production for many years. Development and evaluation of innovative animal production technologies require detailed research based on the collected data. The database systems are used for this purpose. The aim of the study was to design and create the acquisition and processing database system "Animal Housing Technologies". The system allows collection, processing, reporting and analysing the data on the livestock production technologies. It is
a useful tool for comprehensive evaluation of the technical and technological solutions in the animal production including the animal welfare, environmental protection and energy consumption criteria. It can be helpful in developing modern, innovative technologies of the animal housing, with the principles of sustainable development.
An offer of the existing expert systems (ES) for crop production in our country is presented. It was established that the recommendation decision support systems in plant protection are ES-like, since they comprise components typical of ES. The DSS formulate recommendations solving problems concerning justification of protective treatments. Thus such DSS behave similarly to the ES. The availability of the information from the ES in plant protection is still scant in our country. It is necessary to develop new ES for the most important crops. Interpretation of the EU provisions allowed stating the need of presenting the integrated pest management issues in a wider scope of the integrated crop production. The multifaceted scope of these issues calls for a multidisciplinary handling of the ES development: cooperation of agronomists, phytopathologists, plant-protection specialists, meteorologists, economists, agricultural advisers, farmers as well as specialists in databases, software engineering, artificial intelligence, etc.
The article shows the results of research on high-yielding varieties of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), growth and development of plants under the conditions of western forest-steppe. Moreover, it establishes the duration of the vegetation period, formation of elements of bean plant productivity that provides the appropriate level of seed yield, which depends on the cultivar and sowing methods. Sowing in the usual way with wide row spacing of 15 cm provided the highest yield of Mavka variety on the level of 1.78 t•ha-1. As a result of sowing in the usual way with wide row spacing of 30 cm Bukovynka variety had the highest yield – 1.72 t•ha-1, and as a result of the wide-row planting method with wide row spacing of 45 cm it was – 1.76 t•ha-1.
The paper presents analysis of the ways in which waste heat collected from the upper space of the plastic tunnel may be used. Warm air sucked from the upper space was pumped to a diffuser located in the process water tank. The assumed method was theoretically analysed and then tests were carried out in a real facility. Air bubbles moving in the liquid layer transferred heat, which they contained. The initial research, carried out according to the assumed method, did not bring satisfactory results. Nonetheless, some relations and possibilities of improvement of the described method by increasing the degree of complexity and the system costs were reported.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of selected operating parameters of the two types of orchard sprayers on vertical distribution (expressed as spray percentage share in 50-cm segments) and quantitative changes in the vertical distribution of spray measured on the vertical separator of drops. The study included measurements of the vertical distribution of spray for two different ways of nozzles setting, two types of nozzles and two fan rotation speeds. The vertical distribution of spray depended significantly on spray emission system, the configuration and the type of nozzles and in the slightest degree on the fan rotation speed. The smallest share of liquid fell on the edge segments (≤ 5.22%) and the largest on the middle ones – 29.33%. The change in the configuration of nozzles significantly affected the change in the spray vertical distribution (by the spray displacement between the 50-cm segments). The greatest changes in the vertical distribution of spray – as affected by nozzle configuration change – was observed for the sprayer with the horizontal spray emission with maximum change in one segment of 14.0% (an average of 7 segments: 5.38%).
The paper verifies usefulness of the high frequency trading model developed by Marco Avellaneda and Sasha Stoikov, used in simulation of turnover with futures contract securities of one of agricultural commodities on the selected commodity stock exchange. Accuracy of provided signals of purchase and sale signals was verified on authentic quotations – the futures contract for coffee prices of the London Stock Exchange. Results of ten subsequent session days was analysed in detail. Quality of the assumed investment algorithm was determined with the use of stock exchange ratios: Information Ratio and Maximum Drawdown. A short discussion was conducted, which compared a standard investing method and the analysed model of algorithmic trading. In conclusion, all most important statements and conclusions were made, which confirmed usefulness of the HFT model developed by Marco Avellaneda and Sasha Stoikov for turnover of futures contract securities for agricultural commodities.
The objective of the paper was to determine appropriate relations between efficiency and effectiveness of implementing the scientific and technical progress and work organization with the use of the EU funds. In 2004-2009 70 selected family farms from the province of Biłgoraj, which benefit from the EU funding for technical modernization, were investigated. The period prior to and after obtaining the aid was analysed. Efficiency of using agricultural engineering referred to the amount of aid and the net commodity production was the highest in farms, which were big with respect to the area and economy. The costs of obtaining grain units (GU) were decreasing along with the increase of the economic size of farms, while the net commodity production was rising in these farms. Efficiency of using the EU funds for technical modernization was presented in each investigated group of farms, but these funds were the most effectively used in farms with the area up to 70 ha of AL, which is mainly determined by the AL area, economic size, level of the obtained farming effects and the level of providing the work station with infrastructure. In farms with smaller areas, a high level of the employment infrastructure, at the simultaneous loading with high costs of mechanization means, was proved. Modernization of farms, considerably influences the production process, all mechanization rates increase including: the replacement value of mechanization means, the level of technical infrastructure of employment, installed power, objectified work inputs, human labour expenditures, employee infrastructure, energy infrastructure of employment, mechanization degree and the net commodity production (GU∙ha-1 AL).
The objective of the paper was to design and test various variants of the thermal biomass processing controllers. The process took place in a batch reactor consisting of a metal chamber into which thermal energy was supplied through a diaphgram with the use of a 2 kW power ceramic band heater. The chamber of the reactor along with the heater was thermally insulated. A classic solution of a PID controller and its variety - a robust PID controller, resistant to the object parameters fluctuations was selected for tests. The Linux Debian system and the SciCosLab environment, consisting of graphic SciCos environment were used for the operation of the stand. The system kernel was modified for operation in real time through a RTAI module (Real Time Application Interface). Analysis of the results shows that, a robust controller ensures better quality, which besides a shorter time of response, behaves better in case of the object parameters fluctuations.
The objective of the research was to determine and compare values of forces necessary to separate a rachis of four selected varieties of spelt at the use of two levels of potassium fertilization. The tests were carried out with a testing machine MTS Insight 2. Measurements were carried out separately for upper, central and bottom zone of a rachis. Based on the obtained results, it was stated that the researched varieties of spelt show a considerable variability on account of rachis strength in particular rachis zones. In the upper zone, the level of the applied potassium fertilization did not influence the rachis strength. It was related to all the researched varieties and the force values, at which separation of the rachis segment occurred, were within 1.09 to 1.67 N in relation to the variety. In the lower zone of rachis, its strength in all varieties was the biggest regardless the applied potassium dose.