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Agricultural Engineerin, 2014, Issue 3 (151)
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151 # 3579
Determination of the environmental impact of a new biomass logistics chain

Agricultural residues (prunings) coming from permanent plantations and orchards constitute a significant and largely unused potential for renewable energy. The EuroPruning project, respecting the impact on the environment, aims to turn prunings into a valuable fuel source by developing solutions for their harvesting, transportation and storage that will create growth in the European biofuels market. To determine the environmental consequences of the Pruning-to-Energy (PtE) logistics chain, a Life Cycle Assessment study will be conducted. In this study the PtE scenarios will be compared to three current practices: open field burning, mulching and use for domestic heating. In the paper an outline of the assessment methodology and consequent challenges are provided.

151 # 3580
Internet market of spare parts for agricultural machines

The objective of the paper was to analyse and assess the internet market of spare parts for agricultural machines. The research was carried out in the group of the selected servicing centres, which offer sale of spare parts on the web sites. Differences in the assortment of specific on-line shops and the manner of presenting information concerning sale in the Internet was analysed. Assortment offer of on-line shops is varied. Possibility of selling spare parts through the Internet constitutes an asset of an enterprise. On this basis, present directions of development of the web site department and sale of spare parts for farm tractors in Poland were determined.

151 # 3581
Orchards biomass for energy purposes: an approach for the assessment of the impact on society

Analysis and evaluation of the impact on the social aspects and the social value of a given investment are still not a popular analysis applied in Poland. However, EU legislation and the practice of developed countries (including the U.S.) support the implementation of these analyzes. They are important from the point of view of the local community and that is why they are incorporated into the EuroPruning project. This article presents two types of analyzes: SLCA and SROI, which take into account in their methodologies the social aspects, i.e. impact on the condition and the satisfaction of the local community (social impact).

151 # 3582
EuroPruning – a new direction for energy production from biomass

One of the possibilities of biomass potential increase on the energy market is the utilisation of agricultural residues in the form of prunings coming from orchards and permanent plantations (fruit tree, vineyards and olive grove prunings and branches from up-rooted trees). The issue of such biomass acquisition for energy purposes in Europe is not fully developed and several aspects still require investigation and/or solutions. The result of that unsolved subject is EuroPruning project realised in the frame of FP7 which is focused on the development of new improved logistics for pruning residues. The paper presents the main goals and assumptions of the EuroPruning project. The methodology and the range of the research works related to harvesting, transport and storage of prunings is described, as well. Attention was paid as well to the environmental, economic and social aspects that are going to be analysed during the project realisation.

151 # 3583
Analysis of student motivation and predisposition to use CES EduPack software for teaching materials science

The aim of the study was to examine the motivation and predispositions of students of the Faculty of Production Engineering at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin to attend laboratory classes in Materials Science supported with a computer program Cambridge Engineering Selector – CES EduPack in English. Determinants of the desirability of its use for first-year students were: the level of computer skills, interests of students in the issues of materials selection and knowledge of the English language, which supports the program. The survey consisted of 17 questions. The questionnaire was filled in by 81 students. The results confirmed the positive opinion of the respondents about the advisability of using a computer program for education purposes. Moreover,half of the respondents believe that during laboratory classes various forms of knowledge transfer should be combined. Students in a large majority show interest in the choice of materials for the products of everyday use. In contrast, they are afraid of or do not have an opinion on using software in English.

151 # 3584
Factors that influence solid particles emission and methods of their limitation

Renewable energy constitutes an effective tool in the struggle with a danger of global climate warming. The next solution in this fight is development of the construction of combustion engines and exhaust gas purification systems such as new catalysts and particulate filters (DPF). The paper presents the author’s own research results of the measurement of toxic components of exhaust gas emission, in particular (NOx and PM) in delivery trucks which meet the requirements of environmental protection Euro 4, which were propelled with diesel oil – petroleum – derived and with biofuel B10. The above vehicles were operated in a horticultural farm. Measurement of toxic components emission NOx and PM from the operated vehicles was carried out pursuant to the European standards i.e. the New European Driving Cycle with the use of a dynamometer Schenck 500G S60. The obtained results proved that the efficiency of the particulate filter and the operation of the catalytic converter for both types of fuels were comparable.

151 # 3585
Impact of laser beams treatment on the biomass yield and energy value of multiflora rose

The object of the paper was to determine the impact of laser beams treatment of the cuttings of multiflora rose on the yield of fresh and dry mass and the energy value. A one-factor field experiment was carried out in 2009-2013 in Mydlniki near Cracow. The impact of two doses of radiation of cuttings with laser beams on the yield, chemical composition and energy value of multiflora rose was investigated. As a result it was found out that radiation with laser beams did not influence the size of fresh yield of multiflora rose. However, bigger dose of laser radiation caused higher increase of dry mass concentration in the above-ground parts and a higher yield of dry mass. No significant impact of bio-stimulation of laser radiation of cuttings on the combustion heat and calorific value of multiflora rose was reported. A considerable content of sulphur in the multiflora rose biomass was reported.

151 # 3586
Level and effectiveness of use of delivery trucks and trucks in the selected horticultural farms

The objective of the paper was to analyse the level and effectiveness of using delivery trucks and trucks in horticultural farms. The scope of the paper covers delivery trucks and trucks, which constitute the equipment of 60 agricultural farms, which produce vegetables and fruit, located on the territory of Świętokrzyskie and Małopolskie Voivodeship. The following, inter alia, was determined: annual use, yield, structure of transport works and the use of capacity. It was determined, inter alia, that in the vegetable farms there are more both delivery trucks and trucks per one farm than in the horticultural farms. The transport efficiency of vehicles in the vegetable farms is lower in comparison to vehicles in the horticultural farms.

151 # 3587
Analysis of the selected factors impact on the amount of stored heat and the mass change in the rock-bed storage placed in the laboratory tunnel

The paper presents results of analysis of the air flow through the rock - bed storage. Air was collected from the inside of the plastic tunnel and pressed to the segments of the storage with area was 18.7m2 and volume was almost 13.1 m3. The research was carried out from March to October 2013. The cycle of the storage work (charging or discharging) was controlled based on the algorithm, in which a controlling signal was based on the difference in the temperature between the average temperature of the bed and the temperature inside a tunnel. 318 measurement cycles were selected for a detailed analysis. In those cycles, based on the measured parameters of air pressed into and flowing out of the storage, the amount of the stored heat in the storage and the change in the concentration of steam included in air was determined. For the obtained results multiple regression equations, describing a unitary heat stream and mass exchanged during the air flow through the storage, were found. Moreover, the quantity relations between a unitary heat and the mass stream exchanged during the air flow through the storage including two sets of independent variables, were determined. The first one includes: velocity of the pressed air (measured in the air pressing conduit for particular segments), initial temperature of the storage and the pressed heat stream. The second set of independent variables includes: temperature of the pressed air, deficiency of steam pressure inside the facility and the stream of the pressed air. Non-linear estimation with the use of quasi-Newton method was applied for determination of these relations.

151 # 3588
Energy efficiency of hybrid rye cultivation in relation to the manner of soil cultivation

In a one-factor field experiment, carried out in 2011-2012 in Demo Farma in Drzęczewo near Gostyń in Wielkpolskie Voivodeship, the size and structure of energy inputs incurred for cultivation of hybrid rye and index of energy efficiency were compared. The size of energy accumulated was not varied by the compared systems of field cultivation, because it depended mainly on inputs of energy accumulated brought in the form of materials (approx. 85%). The use of no-tillage cultivation reduced energy inputs brought in the form of fuel by 2.4% and in the form of aggregates (by 34.5% in comparison to tillage cultivation). The compared systems of field cultivation diversified the size of hybrid rye seed crop by 4.7%, value of the energy efficiency index by 3.9% and the size of the accumulated energy inputs by 0.9%.

151 # 3589
Method of mathematical modelling of the surface of the egg shell shape, egg yolk and air chamber of chicken eggs

The paper presents a method of mathematical modelling of the shape of the surface of the egg shell, egg yolks and air chamber. For modelling of the shape, eggs with dimensions: length 60; 57.2; 56.4 mm, width 47.1; 42.3; 41 mm and thickness of 46; 41.1 and 39.2 mm were selected. Two Bézier patches were used to map the shape of the surface of the egg shell, yolk and the air chamber. Calculation and visualization was carried out in Mathcad computer program. The developed mathematical model of the 3D shape of chicken eggs and its basic elements can be used for modelling the processes occurring in their production and processing.

151 # 3590
Development of renewable energy sources in the Northern Black Sea Coast

The objective of the study was to analyse the policy and economy of renewable energy sources development in the Northern Black Sea Coast of Ukraine. Presently the share of the renewable energy resources in the power balance of Ukraine is rather small, namely 0.3% of the general development of the electric power. Nevertheless, Ukraine has huge potential with this regard. The accepted power strategy of Ukraine till 2020 has to play an important role. The potential of renewable energy sources in Ukraine makes 113 million tons of equivalent fuel whereas taking into consideration the modern level of production, traditional energy sources can provide Ukraine with 68 million tons of equivalent fuel with fuel and energy resources. The required theoretical level of the research included the use of analysis, comparison and synthesis. The analysis of the alternative energy development, which aims at experience and forecast of possible ways of development has given the opportunity to obtain the result of the research within vertical (historical) and horizontal (functional) scopes. In the southern regions of the country the investment projects aiming at the creation of power plants, working with sun and wind energy are actively carried out. The Northern Black Sea Coast of Ukraine is the most suitable region for development of this branch of alternative power engineering.

151 # 3591
Control of heat collection and airing process during composting with compactrio controller

Composting of biological waste constitutes an exothermic process. Some heat generated during composting is required to maintain the process and possible batch disinfection. The compost heap temperature increases often during the process up to 80ºC. According to the literature, the most advantageous composting temperature of the thermophilic phase is the temperature of 55ºC. However, excessive heat collection may be used at another location. Yet temperature inside the composting material shall not decrease below 50ºC as it may cause slowing down or even inhibition of the composting process. During composting, air supply (oxygen) is crucial to ensure optimum conditions for microorganism growth. Therefore the proper control of heat collection and airing process is required. The paper presents the fuzzy logic and LabView language based application that ensures control of the composting process. Conducted tests of the workstation and application confirmed heat collection of 101 MJ and pumping 0.68 m3 of water.

151 # 3592
Quality characteristics of electric energy generated in a wind power plant

The objective of the analysis was the quality of electric energy in the place of attachment of a single wind power plant to the electricity grid. This objective was performed based on the author's own research carried out in a LV switching station located in the place of attachment of a wind turbine with the power 150 kW to the MV distribution network. The object of the research was located in the northern part of Małopolskie Voivodeship. The assessment of the quality of electric energy was carried out based on the requirements set forth in the Ordinance of the Minister of Economy on detailed conditions of functioning of the power system and the Manual of Movement and Operation of Distributive Network. Based on the analysis, which was carried out, one may assume that the requirements referring to frequency changes, efficient value of the supply voltage, voltage unbalance and its deformation from the sinusoidal waveform have been met. In the period which was covered by the research, during the wind turbine work, insignificant surpasses of the admissible level of the root mean square of voltage were reported, but their number constituted less than 0.07% of observations. During the research, also 20 voltage dips of values exceeding 10% of the rated voltage, average depth of which was 172V were reported. In majority these were disruptions caused by other receivers connected to the network.

151 # 3593
food industry, health and safety, awareness of employee, working conditions

Raising the awareness of workers with regard to the occupational health and safety should be a key role in every workplace. Promoting safety is aimed at involvement of employees in this issue and the change of attitude. The article presents an analysis of the awareness of employees in the food sector. The analysis was developed on the basis of the questionnaire. The questions focused on some important issues concerning the employees’ awareness. The survey which was conducted in the agri-food industry in the Lublin region, indicated that employees understand the issues of safety and health at work, they can use the knowledge obtained in the training in their workplace and know the hazard in the workplace.

151 # 3594
Impact of organic additives on biogas efficiency of sewage sludge

Methane fermentation, which constitutes at the same time a precious biogas source, is the most frequently applied stabilization method of sewage sludge. Municipal or industrial sewage does not, however, provide for the effective biogas production, mainly on account of their chemical composition. The objective of the paper was to verify susceptibility to the methanation process of the selected organic substrates (refined glycerine, beet molasses, whey) with sewage sludge. The scope of the research covered initial analysis of the raw material (pH, dry mass, dry organic mass), methane fermentation of the suitably prepared samples of fermentation mixtures and the assessment of biogas and methane efficiency. The highest concentration of methane was obtained from the mixture of sewage sludge with refined glycerine (63.10%), whereas the lowest – from the mixture with whey (49.8%).

151 # 3595
Biochar from a digestate as an energy product and soil improver

Digestate, as bio-degradable agricultural biogas waste may be subject to the direct management as a fertilizer or, after separation of the solid and liquid phase – solid phase may be subjected to thermo-chemical transformation to biochar. Biochar is a carbonization product with high carbon concentration and relatively low decomposition susceptibility, obtained from various types of organic waste (International Biochar Initiative). Biomas carbonization takes place in the torrefaction process in the temperature from 200ºC to 320ºC. The chemical composition and utility properties of biochar depend on the substrate type and the process parameters. Biochar obtained from biodegradable waste may be an element of carbon biosequestration and used as biofuel, whereas in agriculture – as soil improver, which decomposes for a long time and which positively influences soil fertility, number of biogenic components and physical and water properties. The paper presents characteristic of the torrefaction process, process products and utility values of biochar from the point of view of energy and the agricultural value.

151 # 3596
Problems with deriving the fruit tree pruned biomass for energy use

Biomass, wood in particular, is one of the main renewable energy sources. The authors’ point of interest is the use of the orchard biomass, produced annually as a result of pruning the trees and shrubs, for the heating purposes, as such biomass is used for this purpose only to a little extent both in our country and in Europe. Such biomass, consisting mainly of branches and shoots, is usually shredded and left in the orchard interrows to serve as a natural fertilizer. This paper focuses on the reasons why it should be collected and removed from the orchard. It presents the technologies of pruning and collecting such biomass, and analyses the newest machine constructions that allow for fast collection and compaction of dendromass to the form which facilitates its storage and natural drying.

151 # 3597
Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions during summer from fattening pigs, kept either on fully slatted floor or on deep litter

The aim of the study was to determine greenhouse gases emission factors from fattening pigs kept on deep litter and on fully slatted floor in order to compare them. The emissions were measured from July to September 2013. The buildings were located in the farms in the neighbourhood, in the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship. Gas concentrations were measured by photo – acoustic spectrometer Multi Gas Monitor INNOVA 1312. The average value of CO2 emission factor was 105 g•day-1•kg-1 (VCO2=29%) for the deep litter and 62 g•day-1•kg-1 (VCO2=31%) for a system with a fully slatted floor. For N2O value was respectively 0.047 g•day-1•kg-1 (VN2O=31%) and 0,027 g•day-1•kg-1 (VN2O=34%). The CH4 emission factor value was respectively 0.809 g•day-1•kg-1 (VCH4=63%) and 0.715 g•day-1•kg-1 (VCH4=30%). The emission factors of researched gases were higher in deep litter fattening house, for CO2 by 69%, for N2O by 74% and for CH4 by 13% than in the building with a fully slatted floor. According to the warming potentials of greenhouse gases, rearing pigs on deep litter would emit 59% more of CO2 –equivalents.

151 # 3598
Impact of thermal treatment of grass pea on the content of selected chemical components

The objective of the paper was to estimate the impact of infrared rays heating of grass pea seeds on the protein solubility in KOH, content of fibre fraction: NDF (neutral detergent fibre), ADF (acid detergent fibre) and ADL (acid detergent lignin) and the content of carotenoids. Grass pea seeds (Lathyrus sativus L.), of Derek variety constituted the research material. The investigated seeds were heated by infrared rays in the temperature of 180ºC in the time: 30, 60, 90, 120 or 180 s. It was found out that the used thermal treatment did not have a significant impact on the protein solubility in KOH. After 180 s of heating this parameter was above 95%. Heating with infrared rays caused changes in the content of the fibre fraction in grass pea seeds. As a result of the process, the content of the NDF fraction was reduced and the growth of ADF and ADL was reported. Heating grass pea seeds with infrared rays did not cause the decrease of the carotenoids content.

151 # 3599
Flax seed separation with vibrating screens

The objective of the research consisted in comparing the operation efficiency of a separator provided with fixed screens mounted to the shoe and the one fitted with spring-mounted screens, determination of the impact of the basic kinematics parameters on the separation efficiency. Analysis was also carried out regarding the use of cylindrical spring-mounted screens and flat spring-mounted screens. The process of mass movement on the screen surface was examined also including the movement upward, downward and throwing up. The values characteristic for the separation process were output (capacity) of screens and the impurity separation degree. The analyzed kinematic parameters included: screen shoe vibration amplitude, screen vibration amplitude, screen inclination angle, screen vibration operation angle, own vibration frequency, kinematics limits coefficient. As a result, the mathematical models of separation were determined regarding the unit efficiency and the impurity separation degree. Next calculation based on these equations determined the value of the following parameters: Ap=1, 2, A=8 mm, K=2, 3, for which qF=0.72 kg∙s-1∙m-2, E=0.87. The parameters of springs ensuring proper modulus may be determined with the monogram or formula (20). According to the conducted experiments qF screen capacity depended on the straight-line basis on Ap spring stiffness, A screen shoe vibration amplitude and it increased as qF and Ap values increased. The increase was less evident in case of ω and ε value increase. Whereas the non straight-line basis and significant increase followed as the values of α and K parameter increased. Impurity separation degree E increased initially and next decreased as increase followed of spring stiffness Ap, and along with screen hopper vibration amplitude increase. This increase was less evident in case of ω frequency and ε angle increase. Separation of impurities significantly decreased in case of α and K parameter increase.

151 # 3600
Relational database supporting experiments connected with plant protection

Carrying out studies connected with application of plants protection products for chemical methods of plants protection against pests and diseases requires to use databases in order to collect the obtained results. Databases, and more precisely information stored in them, may be used not only in the process of conducting further trials, but they may also be helpful for users of the bases, for example with their scientific work. This article presents a database application, “Documents archive”, based on the relational database designed and implemented by using SZBD Microsoft Access 2010. The software allows recording results of research and experiments related to efficacy of plant protection products at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice, and effective usage of results obtained earlier in the research process of this unit. Uncom-plicated, user-friendly and fully automated interface of the presented database application was implemented based on diverse forms, with the usage of macro and VBA language procedures. Possibility of cooperation with diverse software significantly increases the possibilities that are offered by database application “Documents archive” in finding and processing the stored data, which makes it a very useful tool (IT tool) for research connected with plant protection. In this way, based on the research and experiments results stored in the base, the database application allows a quick evaluation of the applied plants protection products, as well as selection of the most effective scenario of their usage for a specific crop or pest.

151 # 3601
Analysis of the electric power distribution systems on the rural areas of central Poland

Dynamics of the quantity and quality changes of the rural electric power distribution systems compared to the urban systems was analysed. It was found out that in 2006-2011 at the 18% growth of electric energy consumption by rural households approx. 0.5% development of the distribution systems, through which these households are supplied with electric power, was reported. Nonetheless, values of indicators which characterize the quality of supply of recipients have not deteriorated. The degree of use of the line capacity is still low. The issue, from the point of view of the electric power system capacity, are small fragments of overloaded distribution networks, improvement of which is first of all justified by the intensification of existing networks capacity, not by development.

151 # 3602
Application reporting yield forecasts of selected crops in Poland

Since 2005, in IUNG-PIB [Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute] work on the construction of the "Decision support system in plant production" (DSSPP) has been conducted. The purpose of the system is to generate information for agricultural producers, advisers, administration, etc. The DSSPP includes the yield forecast module (YFM), which implements in SQL language the yield forecast models of the selected crops developed at the Institute. As a supplement to the YFM, an application for generation of reports on yield forecasts was built with the use of the models. Reports in text and spreadsheet form are sent by e-mail to designated recipients. The application extends the YFM functionality adjusting information to the recipient's needs (selection of crops and localities). The tests conducted on the application showed conformity of the results generated by the reporting application and the yield forecast module.

151 # 3603
Updating databases of the internet decision support system for cereals protection

The process of data updating in the databases of the Internet decision support system for cereals protection is presented. The system uses three kinds of data: on spring and winter wheat varieties, on plant protection products (fungicides and insecticides against wheat diseases and pests) and on product doses. It was found that it is possible to obtain all the necessary data for the updating from available web resources. Data sources for variety information are the COBORU materials and websites of agricultural plant breeders. The search engine of plant protection products available on the website of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is an essential source of the data on protection products and their doses. Other sources of these data are websites of plant protection product producers and online shops. In the data updating process the following stages were distinguished: owned-resources stocktaking, data quality criteria selection, credible data sources determination, data acquisition by the application of the criteria, data adaptation to the system requirements, data entry, data verification. Each one of the itemized stages contributes to the ultimate data quality after the updating. The stages of credible data sources determination, data acquisition and data adaptation to the system requirements were found to be labour intensive. About a triple reduction of labour input into the updating was achieved through the improvement of the data acquisition process, gaining proficiency in the database editors operation and the cumulative effect of build-up of specific data resources in the system. The adopted verification procedures for update correctness are described.

151 # 3629
Current issues: Agricultural engineering from the CIGR’s perspective

151 # 3630
Current issues: The future of agricultural engineering

151 # 3631
Current issues: The future of KTR PAN journals

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