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Agricultural Engineerin, 2014, Issue 2 (150)
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150 # 3554
Performance of selected cultivation machines in relation to fuel consumption

Correct juxtaposition of a tractor with a machine affects time and being on time with a treatment as well as fuel consumption. The article presents analysis of the selection of various cultivation machines to a 14 kN class tractor in the aspect of obtaining maximum performance and minimum fuel consumption. The following cultivation machines were investigated: cultivation aggregates and chisel plows, disc harrows, field ploughs. During exploitation, research measurements of fuel consumption and actual speed of the units operation were taken. It was showed that incorrect selection of the working width of a machine for a tractor results in a decrease of the cultivation unit performance and in many cases in the increase of fuel consumption.

150 # 3555
Analysis of municipal waste collected by the selected waste management establishments

From the moment of Poland's accession to the EU, we have been obliged to adjust the waste management system to directives issued by the European Community Council. Our waste management has been adjusted to the requirements of the European Union directives. The objective of the paper was to determine: firstly, the amount of the produced mixed municipal waste; secondly the amount of municipal waste collected in a selective manner with the use of collection methods through segregation in the place of their production using two containers located next to each other - one for collective collection of paper, cardboard and plastic and the second for collection of glass; thirdly, the size of recovered secondary raw material such as glass, plastic and paper from mixed municipal waste; fourthly, the amount of containers or plastic bags designated for selective waste collection. For execution of this objective, two establishments using various waste management systems were selected. Research was carried out in Firma Usług Komunalnych [Municiapl Services Company] "Wodnik" in Trzebnica and in Zakład Gospodarki Komunalnej [Municipal Management Establishment] in Gać, which have dealt with municipal waste sorting for many years. The research proved that the plastic bag method is more effective than segregation with the use of containers located in the neighbourhood.

150 # 3556
Application of plano RS software in a farm

The paper presents evaluation of Plano RS software used in a farm that is covered with agri-environmental scheme. The objective of the research was to check to what extent Plano RS software influences the process of defining quantity of fertilizers necessary in a farm. Wide spectrum of the program, its common availability, and the fact it is user-friendly, allows even people with basic knowledge of computers to use Plano RS software as an effective tool supporting their decisions. Using Plano RS software, a farmer is able to define quantities of fertilizers that should be applied in a farm, crosscheck manual calculations.

150 # 3557
Implementation of precise farming technique on the example of a multi-surface agricultural farm

An attempt to assess the use of modern technique in multi-surface agricultural farm and an attempt to compare the system of precise farming management with conventional was made. Based on the research, which was carried out, it was determined that the purchase cost of the precise farming devices will bring measurable advantages as soon as in the second year of use. Introduction of the precise fertilization treatment and application of pesticides brought the highest savings in a farm. The use of the parallel move system in the investigated farm brings approx. 10% of savings in consumption of production means, that is, sowing material, fertilizers, pesticides and fuel. Advantages arising from the use of precise farming application are estimated to account to approx. 37 PLN•ha-1 per year.

150 # 3558
Effects of seasonal bedding materials change on dairy production

The aim of this research was to answer the question if the seasonal cow’s bedding changes are indifferent to dairy production. The research was held in two different Wielkopolska farms which had very high milk productivity. In one of the farms, the cow’s beddings, were located indoor, and in the second one outdoor under the roof. The autumn’s change from sand into straw and spring’s from straw into sand are either indifferent to milk productivity or they have positive influence.

150 # 3559
Analysis of data of organic farms with the use of non-standard reports in Gekko software

Gekko software is designed to keep reporting in organic farms, which is required by supervising institutions. The program enables collection in its base, data, which are required from a farmer and additional information as well. Based on these data, reports and lists are generated in the program. However, beside standard lists, the software enables programming by a user his calculations. These calculations enable generating unpredicted lists in a standard version of the software. Gekko software was developed within the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR ) project No NR 12-0165-10/2010 titled "Innovative influence of technology and information manage-ment supporting system on production efficiency in organic farms."

150 # 3560
Analysis of the size of dust particles which were formed during pellet production

The objective of the paper was to analyse by means a laser diffraction method, the granulometric composition of dust which settled on various surfaces of factory floors, where pellet was produced. A laser analyser of the size of particles MASTERSIZER 2000 was used in the research. Based on the research, it was found out that the sample of dust contained a limited amount of fractions particularly dangerous for health, i.e. PM4 and PM10 respectively 1.4% and 5.1%. The content of particles of dimension up to 100 μm did not exceed 60% of total volume of the analysed dust. Moreover, a shape of particles was analysed with the use of optic and scanning microscope and NIS –Elements BR software. Values of shape coefficients and histograms of their distribution were determined. Furthermore, relations between the size of particles and its shape were described.

150 # 3561
Variability and mutual correlation of the selected physical properties of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.)

Basic dimensions (length, width and thickness), critical velocity of transporting seeds, sliding friction angle and the mass of pumpkin seeds, obtained from four fruit of various mass were determined. Based on the measurements, volume and thickness of each seed and its spherical index were calculated. Interdependence between the tested properties and indexes was evaluated based on the test for independent samples, analyses of variance, correlation and regression. It was found that the seeds mass is the most variable property and their length is the least variable. Empty and full pumpkin seeds should be separated with a pneumatic separator, where a vertical air stream of velocity approx. 5 m•s-1 is a separating element. Length and mass of seeds may be used at separation of seed material into quality fractions. As a result of separating the smallest seed fraction, a seed material may be obtained in which after the process of removing the fruit-seed coat, 95% of ripe seeds will be available.

150 # 3562
Model solutions of distribution logistics with regard to organic products

The objective of the paper was to present model solutions of distribution logistics with regard to organic products in organic farms. Moreover, size and production structure, as well as participation and structure of commodity production divided into departments was defined. The scope of the paper covered the research in 50 organic farms located in the south of Poland. The study was carried out within the development subsidy No NR 12-0165-10 "Innovative impact of technology and IT support of management on production efficiency in organic farms". Total commodity production in the investigated farms was 6009.73 PLNha-1 which constituted at the average 69.3% of global production. In the structure of plant commodity production, vegetables, grain seeds and fruit constitute a considerable part and in the animal production it was milk and eggs. It was found out that decisions within the scope of model solutions of distribution of organic products mainly concern the selection of proper distribution channels, organization of physical distribution (marketing logistic) and localization of sale points. Four models of organic products distribution were suggested.

150 # 3563
Operating costs and the use of manufacturing capacities of the machinery park in organic farms

The objective of the paper was to determine operating costs of the machinery park in organic farms. Moreover, the level of farms equipment with farm machines and devices was determined and the use of their manufacturing capacities was assessed. The scope of the study covered the research in 50 certified organic farms located in the south Poland in Małopolskie, Podkarpackie and Świętokrzyskie voivodeships. The study was carried out within the development subsidy no NR12-0165-10 "Innovative impact of technology and IT support of management on efficiency of production in organic farms". Average area of AL is 12.48 ha. Operating costs of the machinery park were 30 993 PLN•farm-1 which annually per one hectare of AL generates the value of PLN 3 369. Amortization constituted the highest participation in total costs, which was as much as 65.7% and energy carriers related to consumption on production of diesel oil, leaded petrol and electric energy. The highest use of manufacturing capacities of the machinery park of organic farms was reported in case of a manure spreader, presses and windrow collectors. In case of spreaders, 19 years are necessary for their total amortization, and in case of presses and windrow collectors – 20 and 21 years. In the researched organic farms, average annual rate of use of possible manufacturing capacities of the majority of machines was only 0.4-1.3%. It forces to lengthen the operating periods, which constitutes the main brake on progress.

150 # 3564
Replacement value of farm buildings and costs of their operation in organic farms

A rising trend in the number of production buildings, mainly livestock buildings, which were given for use in farming, has been at the same level for several years. The paper presents the level and structure of equipment of the selected organic farms with farm buildings and their replacement value and operating costs were calculated. The scope of research included 50 facilities located in the southern Poland, which were granted an organic farm certificate. The investigated facilities were the object of research within the development subsidy titled "Innovative influence of technology and information management supporting system on production efficiency in organic farms". The analysed data concerned 2012. For the purpose of comparative analysis the researched facilities were divided into two groups which specialize in plant and animal production. Average area of buildings was 314.45 m2 and was comparable in distinguished trend groups. In farms producing plants, storehouses prevailed and in case of animal farms – livestock buildings. Average annual replacement value of buildings was PLN 105.78 thousand and was also comparable in trend groups. In the structure of replacement value, storehouses prevailed, which constituted at the average 43.03% and livestock buildings – 37.68%. Average annual operating costs of buildings were PLN 58.61 thousand. The fact that these costs in animal farms were 2 times higher than in plant farms, should be emphasised. Renovation materials and ordered repairs constituted the highest costs.

150 # 3565
Impact of working parameters of the pin sowing unit and sowing parameters on the regularity of dosing oats seeds

The paper presents the research results concerning the impact of rotational speed of a sowing shaft (4-34 rot•min-1), width of a sowing opening (1-5 mm) in a pin sowing unit and width of interrows (7-15 cm) and sowing speed (4-12 km•h-1) on the regularity of dosing Flämingsprof oat seeds at the fixed amount of sowing 156 kg•ha-1, which results from the accepted, recommended stock density of 400 seeds•m-2. Tests were carried out on the laboratory stand in two stages. In the first one, measurements related to determination of the performance characteristic of the tested sowing unit was carried out, in the second one, measurements related to determination of the longitudinal irregularity index of seeds sowing was performed. It was proved that from among the investigated factors, regularity of dosing seeds has significant impact (α=0.05) on the width of interrows, rotational speed of the sowing shaft and the width of the sowing opening. From analysis of regression of many variables with stepwise procedure of elimination of non-significant variables, a second degree equation was obtained, which included independent variables - the width of interrows and the width of the sowing opening. The value of irregularity index of seeds sowing at the change of interrows width from 7 to 15 cm decreased by approx. 35% – from value 0.72 to 0.46.

150 # 3566
Minimization of labour inputs in early cabbage production technology

The objective of the paper was determination of the optimum variant of technology of production of early cabbage on supply of the fresh vegetables market from among developed four variants of technology suggested for use in small-area horticultural farms. The scope of the study covered horticultural farms, where the area of cabbage cultivation was in a four-year period from 1.5 to 2.3 hectare. A technology, based on manual work and machinery used earlier for agricultural production in small-area horticultural farms was assumed as a typical carrot production technology. Minimal inputs of human labour and machine labour were accepted as a criteria of optimisation. The 4th variant was an optimal variant from among the analysed. Total inputs of human labour and machine work in this variant were 788.9 h•ha-1 and were respectively lower by: 555.1, 568.9 and 659.1 h•ha-1 than the estimated for the 3rd, 2nd and 1st variant. Manual work inputs in this variant were lower in comparison to the inputs incurred in the 3rd variant by 533.4 man-hour•ha-1, in the 2nd variant by 544.8 man-hour•ha-1 and in the 1st variant by 696.1 man-hour•ha-1, and machines respectively lower by 21.7 mh•ha-1 for the 3rd and 24.1 mh•ha-1 for the 2nd variant and higher by 37 mh•ha-1 in comparison to the 1st variant.

150 # 3567
Variants of carrot production technology and costs of manual and mechanical works

Cost analysis of manual and machine works related to production of carrots was carried out in the context of supply of the fresh vegetables market for four technological variants of a varied level of works mechanization in a horticultural farm, where the surface of carrot crop was 3.67 ha. Technology based on the use of machines applied previously for agricultural production in small-area farms with a great participation of human labour was accepted as a basic carrot production technology. Based on the analysis of possibilities of using new solutions of machines in the previous production technology, variants were developed, the assumption of which was reduction of costs of manual and mechanical works. For the developed four variants of carrot production technology, incurred human labour costs and costs of machines and tools exploitation were determined. Minimal costs of human labour and machine exploitation were accepted as a criterion of selection of the best variant. 4th variant, which was characterized with the lowest costs of human labour and machines exploitation, which constituted 12,570 PLN•ha-1 was recognized as optimal, from among four developed and recommended for use in small area horticultural farms. Costs of human labour and machines exploitation in this variant were lower than the costs incurred in the 3rd variant by 5,100 PLN•ha-1, in the 2nd variant by 9,995 PLN•ha-1, and by 13,536 PLN•ha-1 than calculated in the 1st variant.

150 # 3568
Assessmentof energy consumption of pellets and briquettes production in compressing devices

Assessment of energy consumption of pellets and briquettes production from plant raw materials was presented. Wheat, rye, rape straw and meadow hay were used for their production. The investigated raw materials were ground before briquetting with the use of a station drum straw cutter and theoretical length of cutting of 20 mm, whereas before pelleting – with the use of a beater grinder equipped with sieves of 6 mm meshes diameter. Analysis of moisture of raw materials and their calorific value were carried out according to binding norms. Moisture of compacted raw materials was within 10.1-13.3%, whereas the calorific value was from 16.1 to 17.9 MJ.kg-1. Pellets were produced in a pelleting machine with an immobile flat matrix and driven compressing rolls, whereas briquettes were produced in a screw briquetting machine with a heated compressing chamber. The following values of temperature of the compressing chamber of a briquetting machine were assumed: 200, 225 and 250ºC. For measurement of energy consumption of the raw materials compression process power, time and electric energy converter Lumel 3000 was used. Average values of energy consumption during production of pellets were from 0.145 kWh.kg-1 for rape straw to 0.176 kW•kg-1 for meadow hay. In case of production of briquettes the lowest value of energy intake was reported for wheat straw compressed in temperature 250ºC (0.128 kWh•kg-1), whereas the highest value of energy intake for meadow hay compressed in temperature 200ºC (0.182 kWh•kg-1).

150 # 3569
Experimental and theoretical method of determination of loads for cutting units

The paper presents assumptions which allow determination of energy demand of a machine which uses a simple guillotine cutting of a specific material of low elasticity e.g. soft wood. A simple manner of experimental determination of cutting resistance and a coefficient which characterizes properties of material and a cutting device has been suggested. A numerical value of coefficient was determined based on the principle of maintaining mechanical energy and the principle of labour and mechanical energy balance. Based on the determined coefficient, average load and the power of a cutting unit of a shredder for energy willow were determined.

150 # 3570
Distribution of surface pressure of avocado fruit at impact loads

The paper presents the results of measurements of surface pressure of Fuerte avocado with the use of Tekscan system in impact loading conditions were presented. Contour lines of thrusts for two variants of loading which differ with speed and energy in the moment of crash were determined. Average values measured during the test were determined and statistical analysis was carried out for them. It was determined that the increase of speed and energy results in the increase of value of the maximum surface pressure but does not influence significantly their distribution on the resistance surface. It was proved that in the central area of contact mainly elastic strains appeared at the lack of plastic strains of tissue.

150 # 3571
Analysis of photovoltaic cells usage in a household

The issue of photovoltaic cells usage for hot tap water heating in a household has been presented. There has been built a research point, which was situated on a single-family house in the country. The aim of the research was obtaining maximum performance characteristics of the system for hot tap water heating based on photovoltaic cells. It was carried out during summer solstice because of the most favourable relationship of day versus night, from the point of view of efficiency. Results collected from the research enabled to obtain a lot of exploitation characteristics describing the system. There have been presented exemplary time courses of action of generated power and selected working parameters. Maximum energy performance of the system has been determined. Further research should enable to define minimum hot water tank capacity as a buffer of energy and minimum number of panels that constitute a heating water battery, in order to fulfil requirements included in the Ordinance of the Minister of Infrastructure dated 14th January 2002, related to defining average norms of water consumption (Journal of Law 8/02 item70).

150 # 3572
Dynamics of organic farming development and its subsidizing

Development of the Polish organic farming is characterized with great dynamics in the increase of the number of farms operating in this production system (number of farms increased by 10 times within 2003-2012). Moreover, area of agricultural land designated for such crops increases. Number of agricultural food-processing plants of raw materials, which come from organic farming, increases in a slower pace. Nevertheless, the trend is constantly rising. Results of field research on the example of 100 farms confirmed a national trend of organic farms development. The fact, that respondents from the researched facilities declared additional income sources, adding that incomes from organic production do not cover living demands for maintaining a family, was an essential information.

150 # 3573
Preconditions for modelling plant production technology in vegetable organic farms

Preconditions for modelling technological processes in organic farms, which are oriented to vegetable field production, were presented. Based on empirical data, a rotation model and technical equipment models for farms of the agricultural land area of 10, 20 and 40 ha were developed. In relation to services, they enable full mechanization of production processes. Empirical data, which constitute batch data to models were collected in organic farms, which were included in the research as a part of the project NCBiR [National Centre for Research and Development] NR12-0165-10, titled "Innovative influence of technology and information management supporting system on production efficiency in organic farms." The project was carried out within 2011-2014.

150 # 3574
Comparison of external friction coefficients for single seeds in the stabilised system

The paper presents comparison of average static values of external friction coefficients of single caryopses of wheat of Naridana cultivar with caryopses in the-so called stabilised system at their various orientation towards the motion direction on a steel base. The research was carried out on the research position with an optielectronical system of lift angle of the plane arm. It was found out that average values of static friction coefficients of single wheat caryopses and caryopses in the stabilised system depend on the manner of their arrangement during measurements. For single caryopses, a significantly lower value of this parameter was reported in case of caryopses contact with a base with a back side up and their arrangement with longitudinal axis perpendicular towards the movement direction, whereas for caryopses in the stabilised system - at their arrangement with the back side on a steel plate and with a longitudinal axis in parallel to the motion direction. Moreover, it was determined that average values of static friction coefficients for single caryopses are considerably higher than for caryopses in the stabilised system at their identical arrangement during measurements.

150 # 3575
Dependance of energy inputs on area and economic size of family farms

The objective of the paper is defining the influence of agricultural land area (AL) and economic size on energy inputs in family farms that are beneficiaries of European Union funding. 70 farms of Biłgoraj County that were beneficiaries of EU funding for technical modernization were researched within 2004-2009. In order to define energy inputs, the group of farms that were the object of the research were divided according to the amount of subsidy, area of agricultural land, economic size (ESU) and the income of an enterprise. In the process of characterizing the researched farms according to the level of possessed energy means, tractors, self-propelled combine harvesters and electric engines used in the process of farm production were taken into account, including also the ones mounted in the equipment operated in the farms. The level of energy inputs in the researched farms calculated into area unit was decreasing systematically, both when the amount of funding increased, as well as area, economic size and income of an enterprise. In the group of farms according to the economic size, when its size increased, energy inputs decreased, and the tendency remained the same in farms of the highest income of an enterprise. In farms of a small area (up to 10 ha) of agricultural land (AL), apart from high level of specific labour input, there were high inputs of manual labour.

150 # 3576
Impact of drying parameters and methods on the volume increase of dried apples during their rehydration

The objective of this paper was to analyse the impact of parameters and drying method on the increase of the volume of dried apple slices and cubes during their rehydration. Ligol apples (cut into 3 and 10 mm slices and 10 mm cubes) were dried with the following methods: natural convection (temperature of drying 60ºC), forced convection (a tunnel drier, parameters of drying air: 50, 60, 70ºC and 0,5, 2 m•s-1), fluid drying (60ºC and 6 m•s-1). Dried fruit were rehydrated in the distilled water of 20ºC temperature. Determination of volume was carried out with an uplift pressure method in petroleum ether. Tests proved the impact of ground dried particles and the impact of drying method on the increase of the volume of dried apples during their rehydration. The final volume of the rehydrated dried fruit increased along with the reduction of drying temperature, these differences in numerical values were low, but statistically significant.

150 # 3577
Soil compaction with wheels of aggregates for fertilization with liquid manure

Te objective of the research was determination of the impact of loading capacity of fertilization sets on soil compaction. Degree of soil compaction was determined based on four indexes. Three fertilization sets were selected for research: set A – tractor Renault 95.14 plus a waste removal vehicle of cubic capacity of 6 m3, set B – tractor John Deere 6420 plus a waste removal vehicle 12 m3, and set C Valtra N121 plus a waste removal vehicle 8 m3. Four indexes were determined: field area compaction, loading a field with sets crossings, degree of compaction in the trace of wheels and cubic capacity of ruts. It was determined that the biggest surface of the compacted field was for the set A (27%) and the smallest for the set B (16%). Loading of a field with the sets crossings was the highest also for the set A (212 kN•km•ha-1) and the lowest for the set B (167 kN•km•ha-1). Degree of compaction in the trace of wheels was the highest for the set B (105 kN•m-1) and the lowest for the set A (77 kN•m-1). The highest cubic capacity of ruts was determined on the field fertilized with the set A (99 m3) and the lowest for the set B (61 m3). From among the technical parameters of fertilization machines the following affect the soil compaction degree: tractor mass and a waste removal vehicle mass and its cubic capacity and the working width, which depends on the application unit which was used. The set B may be recognized as the the best selected fertilization set (a tractor and a waste removal vehicle) on account of soil compaction and the least favourable – the set A.

150 # 3578
Identification of extrusion process parameters based on its response to the step function

The paper presents results of the research on the single-screw extruder strength on sudden changes of dosing raw material during the extrusion process. The tests were carried out in a short single-screw extruder KZM-2 whose relation of length to diameter of a screw was 6:1 and rotational speed was 200 rpm. Grits moistened up to 15% moisture and five disturbing samples of mass 0.2-1.2 kg prepared from the same raw material constituted a research material. Particular samples were used for disturbing a stable course of the extrusion process. Disturbance of the process consisted in fast introduction of the whole disturbing dose to the extruder input and measurement of the value of intensity change of current consumed by the extruder engine, time of return to stable conditions and changes in the image of obtained samples of extruder. Measurements of the impact of disturbance on the measured amounts were carried out for three settings of extruder performance. It was found out that a single-screw extruder at all set performances reacted with fast increase of electric current consumption; moreover, time of process stabilization changed each time. Moreover, it was reported that particular disturbing doses affected significantly the changes of quality parameters of extrudates.

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