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Agricultural Engineerin, 2013, Issue 4 (148)
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148 # 3512
Comparison of moisture properties of soils in the context of their susceptibility to compaction with wheels of farm vehicles

The objective of the studies was to compare optimum moisture content determined with Proctor's method with other moisture properties of the selected soils from the region of Szczecin Lowland (Poland). Soils of the 1st and 2nd complex of agricultural usefulness were investigated by measurements conducted on soil samples collected outside of headlands and technological routes. In the subsoil the following soil properties were determined: current field moisture content, soil moisture at water potentials pF0 and pF2, granulometric composition, density of solid phase, humus content, reaction, limits of plasticity and liquidity, maximum dry density of solid particles and optimal moisture content determined with Proctor's apparatus. It was proved that variability of optimal moisture value increases along with the increase of loamy fractions. It was also found out that for soils of the sandy loam or sandy clay loam granulometric composition the optimal moisture content of soil, determined with Proctor's apparatus is similar to the value of its optimum water content for tillage.

148 # 3513
Anisotropy of mechanical properties of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach)

Mechanical and rheological properties of mushrooms in groups selected on account of shape, size and the time of cropping were investigated. Strength tests, hysteresis tests and creep tests of mushrooms compressed between two parallel plates were carried out. Values of the index Wp of the work of deformation inputs, modulus of elasticity EC and stress σobl were calculated. Susceptibility to creeping through calculation of the number of days to doubling of the strain value based on MacLeod equation was determined. Anisotropy of mechanical properties was reported, depending on the direction of loading and the size of a mushroom. Modulus of elasticity EC has a value of 0.5 MPa at the load in the axial direction and 0.3 MPa in the radial direction not depending on the size of a mushroom. Diversity of the value of index Wp from 7 J·kg -1 at the load in the axial direction to 3 J·kg -1 the radial direction. Increase of pressures admissible for the axial direction may the reason for limiting the time of storage of this raw material to several days.

148 # 3514
Structure and composition of waste in the landfill in Wola Suchożebrska

Landfill in Wola Suchożebrska accepts waste from the area of Siedlce and few neighbouring municipalities. A strict monitoring has been carried out on the landfill since 2007. The objective of the research was to analyse the amount and the morphological composition of municipal waste in the landfill in Wola Suchożebrska and on this basis to assess the efficiency of actions related to limitation of waste. Segregation of waste in the landfill caused that despite the increase of the total weight of waste a storage weight has not increased and even it decreased. Efficiency of undertaken activities was often limited due to the reasons not depending on the persons who manage the landfill. Changes in the structure of waste do not allow careful planning of future use, however, an increasing participation of plant waste makes a composting process more popular.

148 # 3515
Mathematical description of technological process for primary fish processing

The paper discusses an approach to the question of the possibility of a mathematical description of discrete processes. On the basis of these processes a large class of manufacturing equipment – production lines and systems for the processing of fish was generated. The use of mathematical models in the early stages of the design will improve the efficiency and quality of the produced equipment and reduce the risks and costs during the design work. We propose to describe the processes of fish processing by topological models that are presented in the form of functional graphs. Overall, the proposed approach will develop new design methods of fish processing equipment.

148 # 3516
Influence of freezing treatment, osmotic dehydration and storage time on the rehydration of vacuum dried strawberries

Dried fruits – strawberries – were rehydrated by dipping them in water at room temperature and their rehydration characteristics were examined. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the preparation method (the impact of freezing treatment at -18ºC, osmotic dehydration in sucrose solution 61.5%) of raw material and storage (from 32 days to 399 days) on the rehydration of dried strawberries. Dried strawberries obtained by the vacuum method from frozen fruits have larger relative weight gain with prolongation of rehydration time than dried fruits obtained from raw strawberries. Osmotic dehydration of strawberries before vacuum drying did not cause a significant difference in rehydration of dried strawberries stored for a long period. Vacuum dried strawberries stored for about 360 days longer at ambient temperature obtained slightly lower relative weight gain and higher solids content.

148 # 3517
Effect of the ultrasound on the carrot juices freezing process

Ultrasound is a relatively new method that has been used in the food industry for enhancing unit operations such as drying, extraction and freezing. Sonication, despite a small invasiveness, has an effect on various physical, chemical and biochemical changes in the treated materials. Freezing is a widely used process in the food industry for extending the shelf-life of the products due to decreasing the food temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate a 30-minute ultrasound treatment on the freezing process of carrot juices (9, 12 and 21°Bx) from two producers. Freezing was conducted by immersion and air chilling method at -30°C medium temperature. The study examined how ultrasound effects the extract, density of juices, the specific freezing time, freezing point, Moreover, the freezing curves were evaluated. It was observed that 30-minute ultrasonic treatment did not affect physical properties of tested juices, only in the case of higher concentrated juices, the increase of tested parameters was seen. There was no difference in the shape of freezing curves, regardless of the freezing method, concentration of the juice and its producer and the application of sonication either. Regardless the concentration or the US pre-treatment, it has been observed that the specific time required to freeze the product in the immersion method was shorter than in the shock freezing. Along with the increase of concentrations of carrot juice the freezing point decreased, regardless of the producer. The freezing point of carrot juices, after the application of the US, slightly decreased. Research in this study confirms the reports of the reduced freezing time after the application of ultrasound in case of carrot juices.

148 # 3518
Ergonomic evaluation of acoustic environment in the livestock building converted for industrial purposes

Research related to ergonomic evaluation of acoustic environment in PCPW EKO-KARPATY in Tarnowiec during production of agricultural anti-weed fabric. The scope of the paper included noise measurement and spectrum analysis at particular unassisted work stations of the process line. The conducted analysis indicated that applicable standards were exceeded in all cases and that there was justified fear that conversion of spaces designed for agricultural production for industrial applications will have a negative impact on health of people working in these conditions. Some suggestions were developed regarding modifications that will ensure conformity with the applicable standards regarding noise level.

148 # 3519
Determination of rut parameters at various levels of slip of a pneumatic drive wheel – laboratory research

The paper presents the results of laboratory measurements on the determination of rut parameters resulting from the operation of a pneumatic drive wheel with a different slip. The experiment was performed on the test bench consisting of the researched wheel load simulator, a mobile soil tub and the rope slip control system. Ruts were made at the wheel slip s=6%, 25%, 43%, 62%, 81%, 100%, and when the wheel rolled along the ground with s close to 0%. The obtained ruts were mapped to the computer using the non-contact laser measuring station. Based on the mapping for the rut fragment, the surface area was calcu-lated in a simplified variant, as a horizontal projection of a rut on the surface area and as a real three-dimensional surface area; moreover, the rut volume was measured. It was found that using a simplified method for determination of the surface area of the rut, i.e. a rut hori-zontal projection, a significant error is committed. For studies with only rolling a wheel, a simplified surface area accounted for only 0.6 of real surface area , and for the wheel slip s=25% is was only 0.5 of actual surface area. Increase of the slip results in significant in-crease of the rut volume. With an increase of the slip s=25%, the volume of the rut increased by 1.4 in relation to the variant of s close to 0%, and when the slip was s=43%, as much as 2.2.

148 # 3520
Assessment of operation efficiency of the selected transport means in the farms of Southern Poland

The objective of the paper was to determine the efficiency of transport means on the example of the selected farms of the southern Poland. Operation efficiency of means was expressed through performance of transports and the amount of work time and labour inputs. The research covered 9 farms located in Małopolska region. Based on the analysis of work time structure and labour inputs and performance of transport means operation, one may clearly state that the work efficiency of the selected means for the transport of the analysed load is very low. The highest labour inputs were incurred for the transport of vegetables with a tractor with a tractor wagon and the lowest for transport of fertilizers with a tractor with a trailer. The set composed of a tractor and two trailers achieved the highest performance among the analysed means through high loading capacity and a high index of load capacity use.

148 # 3521
Exergy analysis of a bakery stove

Exergy analysis of a bakery stove, carried out with the use of exergy balance of this object was presented in the paper. With the use of balance data, assessment of internal and external exergy losses during baking process in the four-chamber cyclometric stove, used for baking a wide assortment of bakery products, was carried out. The obtained calculation results showed that the internal exergy loss constitutes 41.04% of exergy supplied to the system and the external – 58.89%. Those values are the measure of the quality of energy, which may be recovered and used for heating purposes or may be subjected to conversion into other forms of energy. It concerns, as a rule, the loss of external exergy because the internal one was dispersed.

148 # 3522
Biogas yield of maize straw

The paper presents the results of laboratory research of the effectiveness of biogas production from silage of maize straw with addition of the fermentation inoculum, which was post-fermentation pulp from agricultural biogas plant. Maize straw was ensiled naturally and with the use of artificial additives, the task of which was to ensure correct fermentation process. Two preparations were used for ensilage: Silomax (bacteria of lactic fermentation) and Labacsil Acid (the set of organic acids and potassium sorbate). The experiment was conducted in a multi-chamber biofermentator, monitoring biogas production and the minimum level of methane. It was found out that silage from maize straw without the ensiling preparations was characterised with the highest biogas yield. Whereas, with regard to methane production, maize straw silage with Labacsil Acid preparations was the most efficient.

148 # 3523
Method of external assessment of the quality of sugar beet roots

The research problem of the paper concerned verification whether applicable or known methods of post-harvesting evaluation of the roots of sugar beet may be applied to the assessment of the quality of work of technically varied new machinery for sugar beet harvesting. Tests of machines of varied solutions of working units, in particular a topping unit, were carried out in order to accomplish the objective of the paper. Two self-propelled combine harvesters of Ropa euro-Tiger V8-3 type and Kleine Beetliner Large and two sets for 2-stage harvesting by M.A.C.E (Spain) and Amity (USA) companies were used in the study. Ropa euro-Tiger and Kleine Beetliner Large combine harvesters and M.A.C.E. set were equipped with a beet topper but of a varied topping system, whereas, only a defoliator was used in the set by Amity company. Field research of machines included assessment of the topping quality, losses caused by the broken tip of roots and damages of the lateral surface of roots. Research assumptions were assumed according to the method of the International Institute for Beet Research (I.I.R.B.). Moreover, assessment of the topping quality with the method of the Netherlands Institute of Sugar Beet Research (IRS) and the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of the Bonn University was carried out. Assessment of roots after defoliation was carried out based on the Roller's classification (2010). Based on the research results and analyses which were carried out, it was proved that the methods of measurement of the quality of beet harvesting machines operation are not fully useful for assessment of the introduced technical and technological changes. It mainly concerns the assessment of the roots topping. Thus, two modified methods of assessment of the quality of roots topping were suggested. They may be used both for machines equipped with a topping device and a defoliator.

148 # 3524
Quality and nutritional value of silage made of meadow grass mowed with and without conditioners

The research was carried out in 2011-2013 in a farm producing meadow grass silage in the form of cylindrical bales. The objective of the research was to determine the quality and value of the nutrititional values of silage depending on drying ensiled meadow grass influenced by the use of a tine-type conditioner and a roller mill. Three variants of mowing were assumed: without conditioner, with a tine-type conditioner and with a roller mill. A basic chemical composition was marked in silage with a standard method and the content of organic acids with the use of gas chromatograph. Nutritional value of silage was assessed in Flieg-Zimmer scale. It was found out that mowing green forage with the use of a conditioner favourably influences the quality of silage. Silage obtained from green forage, which was mowed with the use of a tine-type conditioner had the highest content of dry mass (415.7 g∙kg -1), a slightly lower content of dry mass was reported upon the use of a roller mill (365.6 g∙kg -1), and the lowest for green forage silage mowed without a conditioner (274.2 g∙kg -1). Appropriate degree of drying was an essential element influencing the course of the ensilaging process and the silage quality.

148 # 3525
Labour consumption of fruit production on the example of selected farms

The paper determines labour consumption of production in the selected fruit farms located on the territory of Łańcut commune. The research was carried out in the form of a guided survey in thirty fruit farms. For comparative purposes, the investigated farms were divided into area groups and the groups of a varied percentage share of orchards in the total area of AL. The net output balance showed that in the unit view, the highest value of this production category (8.88 thousand PLNha -1 AL) was obtained in farms, which had the lowest land resources i.e. to 5 ha of AL. In case of the economic index of workforce productivity, the most advantageous result was obtained in the biggest objects i.e. of the area above 10 ha, where one man-hour was compensated with the value of the net output at the level of 0.23 thousand PLN.

148 # 3526
Parity family income in family farms of diverse areas

The area of a production family farm which may generate parity income of a farmer’s family using mechanized production systems, implemented according to the rules of the sustainable agriculture has been determined. The assumption that the target income of a farmer’s family (parity income) should be comparable to disposable income obtained by those employed in other sectors of national economy has been made. The result of the above assumption follows the statement that farms using from 20 to 50 ha of AL are more likely to meet the requirements of a parity farm generating target income in certain production conditions than other types of farms. The research uses the data of a development project implemented in the years 2009-2012 by NCBiR (The National Centre of Research and Developmen) no NO 120043 06/2009 entitled “Technological and ecological modernization of the selected family farms” accomplished by ITP (Institute of Technology and Life Sciences) in Falenty O/Warszawa (Wójcicki, 2009).

148 # 3527
Influence of a whirlpool tilt angles on the placement of a substitute sediment cone

The article presents the results of the experimental research on the placement of the cone of substitute sediment at the bottom of the laboratory whirlpool tank with capacity of V=2 hl and diameter D=640 mm. The subject of the research was the influence of the whirlpool tilt angle on the process of forming the cone of break. Different tilt angles of the tank's inlet were also taken into account and, for each characteristic states of forming the cone of break were registered. The research led to finding a tilt angle beneficial in terms of movement of the cone of substitute sediment in comparison to cycling in a tank without any tilt.

148 # 3528
Analysis of the components of colour of beef inside after thermal treatment conducted using various methods

In the article, various methods of thermal treatment and their influence on components of colour of beef inside (cut meat and browned surface) are presented and compared. Thermal treatment was conducted to the temperature of 71ºC inside beef inside. Significant differences (p < 0.01) were observed between RGB components of colour of beef inside (both cut meat and browned surface) for contact grill, pan frying, roasting and “delta” roasting. All the components of colour were different for “delta” roasting and other methods and for “delta” roasting the lowest values of RGB components of colour were observed for colour of browned surface.

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