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Agricultural Engineerin, 2013, Issue 4 (147)
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147 # 3471
Assessment of reaction of tyres with different external dimensions on the change of vertical load

The objective of the research was to compare the nature of changes of tractive properties of tractor tyres with different external dimensions depending on the change of the vertical load level. Two diagonal tyres 9.5-24 and 31×15.5-15 with a traditional shape of a tread were selected for the research. The following tractive properties were analysed: slide, tractive force along with its components, tractive efficiency and values of the towing power and powers lost at slide and rolling resistance. Three vertical load levels of wheels were applied: 4620, 5320 and 6110 N. The research was carried out on one base (stubble field). A mobile stand aggregated with a field tractor was used for determination of tractive properties. Based on the obtained results, it was proved that both tyres similarly reacted on the change of vertical load; in both cases certain changes of tractive force and the rolling resistance were reported; whereas no differences were proved in the tractive capacities values.

147 # 3472
Assessment of the operation quality of the corn cobs and seeds processing line

The article presents the assessment of the quality of operation of devices, which comprise a processing line in SAATNAU Sp. z o.o. in Środa Śląska. The following devices were researched: the unit for cleaning cobs, a chamber drier, a threshing unit, a cleaner, cylinder calibrators, a weight selector and a bagging machine. Cobs leaving the units, which separate covering leaves, were clean in approx. 95%. Moisture of cobs upon drying did not exceed 14%. The quality of operation of the threshing unit was at a very high level. Slight fluctuations of the quality of operation occurred in case of cylinder calibrators. The weight selector was of high degree of selection. In case of the bagging machine operation, declination was never exceeded.

147 # 3473
The selected methodical aspects of using the Proctor apparatus in tests of soils concentration ability

The objective of the paper was to search for a function which describes relations of the bulk intensity of the soil skeleton to its moisture based on approximation of the Proctor points. Knowledge on this relation enables prediction of the influence of agricultural vehicles wheels on soil. Searching was limited to four polynomials – from the second to the fifth degree. Material for research originated from the subsoil of five soil profiles. The following were determined in material: grain size distribution, density of a solid phase, humus content, soil reaction and limits of elasticity and soil liquidity. Concentration of samples with the Proctor method was carried out according to PN-88/B-04481. Values of the maximum density and optimal moisture were calculated in the place, where the obtained polynomials describing experimental data accepted the maximum value. It was found out that for determination of the value of optimal moisture and the maximum density, polynomial of the fourth degree is the most suitable.

147 # 3474
Determination of rheological properties of vegetables and fruit based on work inputs of strain

Mechanical properties of plum fruit and edible parts of vegetables were investigated. An interim test and creep test of plums, turnip, kohlrabi and radish were carried out. Based on the work inputs of strain, temporary values of coefficient EC and stress σobl were calculated. Susceptibility to creeping of tissues of the investigated objects was determined through calculation of the number of days to doubling of the strain value based on MacLeod equation. When comparing mechanical properties of plum fruit with properties of vegetables, significant differences in the values of Wp index of the strain work inputs as well as values of coefficient EC were reported. The obtained results allow determination of susceptibility to strain of tissues of the investigated fruit. It was found out that before long-lasting storage of plant materials, it is indispensable to determine anisotropy of their mechanical properties.

147 # 3475
Analysis of traction properties of tyres on the forest subgrade of varied moisture

The objective of the paper was to analyse traction properties of tyres on the forest subgrade of varied moisture and variable strength parameters. The research was carried out on the natural ground forest road at three varied moistures of subgrade: 10.5, 13.4 and 19.2%. Traction research was carried out with the use of a specialist stand, where the following tyres were investigated: 5.00-10 (on a single wheel and twin wheels) and 18x9.50-8 in the version without a chain and with an anti-skid chain. The investigations, which were carried out, proved that traction properties strongly depend on the condition of the subgrade. The increase of the subgrade moisture influences deterioration of traction properties of the researched tyres. It was found out that twinning wheels and using anti-skid chains result in the improvement of traction properties and cause the increase of shearing participation in the generated traction force. Loading wheels caused the increase of traction forces, whereas it did not influenced significantly the value of traction efficiency.

147 # 3476
Methodological aspects of measuring hardness of maize caryopsis

The paper presents a modified method of measuring hardness of maize caryopsis marked as HVR. The essence of this method is a test carried out on the machine of Instron type with the use of Vickers microindenter. The test consists of four subsequent stages including an emptied elastic reaction of tissue. Hardness of border elements of caryopis structure of Labor maize, on account of mechanical properties that is fruit-seed coat and a seed was tested. Based on the research, which was carried out, parameters of the test were optimized including anatomical and morphological diversity of the tested object. The following optimal parameters of the test were determined: basic load of 10 N, duration of creeping stage 300 s and relaxation stage time 30 s.

147 # 3477
Assessment of energy losses of a drive wheel equipped with grass type tyres

The study presents the results of traction experiments conducted on three sodded objects differing with seeds sowing norm. The objective of the paper was to compare traction abilities and energy losses of two tyres of different structures. For description of the research conditions, measurements of compactness, maximum shear stress and the moisture of sod soil were carried out. Values of the obtained forces and traction efficiencies were analysed, energy balance of wheels equipped with the researched tyres was also conducted. It was proved that the value of traction forces of wheels were comparable, but generated in a different manner. In case of 36x13.5-15 tyre - no relations between seeds sowing and traction efficiency were proved. 400x55-22.5 tyre could be better used for strength properties of subgrade and for achieving higher efficiency on facilities with a higher norm of seeds sowing. For 36x13.5-15 tyre higher demand for power supplied to the wheel was proved; more power was lost for the rolling resistance. For 400x55-22.5 tyre in order to obtain comparable traction force as for 36x13.5-15 tyre, lower demand for power and higher losses of power for skid were reported.

147 # 3478
Mixed sowing of winter grains as an opportunity for increasing biomass production for energy purposes

In the research which was carried out in 2004-2007 in RSD Zawady, single-cultivar and mixed sowings of winter grains (wheat, triticale and rye) were compared on account of calorific value of the obtained crop of seeds and straw. The obtained results indicate that winter grains designated for energy purposes are recommended for cultivation in intercrop mixtures. Simultaneously in was confirmed that mixed sowings allow obtaining more stable effects in the subsequent years of research, which from the point of view of possible biomass recipients for energy purposes, encourages greater interest in this source.

147 # 3479
Impact of fragmentation of extrudate on the water absorption and water solubility indices

The objective of the paper was to investigate the fragmentation time of extrudate on its degree of fragmentation and determination of water absorption indices WAI and water solubility WSL as factors describing each obtained fraction. Two types of extrudate produced of one mixture of wheat flour (60% participation) and grits (40% participation) were used for the research. Mixtures were subjected to the process of extrusion with the use of a single-screw extruder and a double-screw extruder. The produced extrudates were ground in the universal mill in: 8, 10 and 15 seconds. Then, fractions were separated on a laboratory sieve. It was found out that the smallest fraction (0.05-0.1 mm) and the biggest fraction (above 0.5 mm) of the extrudate was characterised with the highest solubility and the lowest water absorption. Time of fragmentation of the extrudate influences the changes of the grain size composition of the fragmented extrudates. However, no significant impact of the fragmentation time on the changes of WAI index for the same fraction of the fragmented extrudate was reported.

147 # 3480
Drying kohlrabi with microwave method in the lowered pressure conditions

Kohlrabi, a vegetable which contains precious microelements and vitamins(B1, B2, B6, C) and acids: nicotinic acid, panthotenic acid, folic acid were subjected to microwave-vacuum drying. The objective of the paper was to determine the kinetics of drying of kahlrabi, drying shrinkage, rehydration kinetics as well as the maximum temperature of heating the material. Material was subjected to microwave-vacuum drying process at the pressure of 2-4 kPa and power of microwaves at the level of 240, 360 and 480 W. Kahlrabi was cut into 10 mm cubes. The research which was carried out allowed the statement that in the kinetics of drying for all three powers of microwaves, two periods of drying may be distinguished. The period of constant speed of drying described with a linear equation, which ended upon reaching uk=4 kg∙kg-1 and the period of variable speed of drying described with exponential equation. Final volumetric drying shrinkage was at the level of 70%.

147 # 3481
Stand for investigation of the efficiency of the automatic identification of goods in EAN and RFID technologies

Innovative test rigs were presented. It enables: assessment of efficiency of automatic identification systems in logistics and carrying out further scientific works concerning implementation of EAN and RFID technology in agro-food engineering. The test rigs was verified by laboratory means through execution of the function of receiving goods for storage with the use of devices applied in EAN and RFID technologies. Based on the tests, it was stated that RFID has considerably higher speed of identification than EAN. Moreover, RFID technology is dedicated where simultaneous identification of various codes is expected. Both technologies enable execution of the automatized process of storing and distribution of agri-food goods, additionally RFID enables introduction of data to the code during the logistic process.

147 # 3482
Impact of drying parameters on the loss of dry substance mass during rehydration of dried apples

The objective of the paper was to analyse the impact of drying parameters on the loss of dry substance mass of dried apples of Ligol cultivar during their rehydration. Apples cut into 3 and 10 mm slices and 10 mm cubes were dried with the following methods: natural convection (temperature of dryingC), forced convection (a tunnel drier, parameters of drying air: 50, 60, 70C and 0,5, 2 ms -1), fluid drying (60C). Dried fruit were rehydrated in the distilled water of 20C temperature. Research proved statistically significant impact of fragmentation of dried fractions on the loss of their dry substance mass during rehydration. Whereas research did not prove statistically significant impact of drying temperature on the loss of dry substance mass and impact of the applied methods of drying on the final value of loss of dry substance mass of dried apples as a result of rehydration.

147 # 3483
Analysis of economic efficiency of alternative technology of corn cultivation for seeds with the use of glyphosate

Aiming at lowering the production costs, the number of applied agrotechnical treatments is limited. Giving up some of field treatments, besides undoubted advantages, may cause higher weed infestation of plantations. Applying glyphosate before germination is a cheap and effective method of their control in corn cultivation. The article presents the research results of alternative technology of corn field cultivation for grain with the use of non-selective herbicide in a farm, which carried out activity in conditions of Zachodniopomorskie Voivodeship. The objective of the research was to analyse economic profitability of corn production with a simplified technology of field cultivation with the use of total herbicide before germination. Calculations of direct production costs of corn for grains including costs of fuel and grease, material and raw materials, human labour and costs of exploitation of indispensable machines, agricultural tools were presented. Structures of exploitation costs of machines and agricultural tools per particular treatments were calculated. Based on the obtained results, one may state, that applying the analysed technology is profitable, which is proved by the obtained index of economic efficiency 2.06.

147 # 3484
Variability of the air flow velocity in the heat accumulator with a stone bed depending on the structure of the air distribution system

Efficiency of the air circulation system of a rock bed heat accumulator is a key factor for its overall effectiveness. The objective of the paper was to compare the air flows through the complete air circulation system of such accumulator for different solutions of the sealing system. The experimental objects were three 3-sectional rock bed accumulators, of which one was made in a simplified way and then sealing was proceeded in stages, while two others were considered as maximally sealed. The changes of air flow measured near the fan pumping the air into were used as a measure of sealing effectiveness. It has been found that a simplification of sealing in a construction of the rock bed accumulator may result in almost twice higher air flow into the accumulator. The particular effects of simplifications depend on the location (mainly before or after the rock bed) and the location of accumulator’s section (the nearest or the farthest from the fan). The simplifications of sealing of pipe passages through rock bed thermal isolation and pipe connections in air collectors may cause in total about 28-47% of total plausible range of flow changes, while simplifications in arrangement of sealing foil around the rock beds of particular sections of accumulator may result in about 53-72% of total plausible range of flow changes.

147 # 3485
Determination of the skidding road deformation caused by multiple crossings of Mht 8002 HV caterpillar harvester

The objective of the paper was to measure deformations of the skidding road which were caused by single, double and triple crossings of caterpillar harvester Mht 8002HV.The measurements were carried out on the skidding road with a transverse slope (4.5º) to the axis of the road, and longitudinal (2.6º) to the axis of the skidding road. The measurements were carried out with the use of a device for remote imaging of the land surface. The device operates by moving Leica Disto Plus laser rangefinder over the tested surface with the use of the coordinate system controlled by a computer (CNS control). Based on the results, it was reported that three crossing of a harvester caused slight deformations of the skidding road, and slight transverse declination of the skidding road caused loading of the caterpillar and resulted in its 70% loading with the total weight of the machine in the centre of the caterpillar. Despite irregular loading of caterpillars, theoretically average unit pressure on soil caused by more loaded caterpillar did not exceed 70 kPa. Whereas, average depth of the rut, which was measured, after three crossings of the harvester was 4,8 cm and for the less loaded caterpillar it was 3,6 cm. Three crossing of the machine uncovered the root systems of trees and considerable relocations of the ground fragments.

147 # 3486
Structural and utility properties of the selected agricultural machines and tools in the users' opinion

The objective of the paper is to analyse the structural and utility properties of the selected elements of the tractor-machinery park. The scope of the paper covers machines and tools, which constitute equipment of 90 agricultural farms located on the territory of Świętokrzyskie and Małopolskie Voivodeship. The assessed equipment includes: agricultural tractors, ploughs, manure spreader, universal seeders, tractor sprayers and combine harvesters. The following were assessed: usefulness in a farm, functionality, mortality, degree of operation simplicity, exploitation costs, availability of spare parts and service, degree of self-service simplicity. It was found out, inter alia, that from among the assessed machines and tools, farm tractors are the most functional in the farmers' opinion and combine harvesters are characterised with high mortality. Moreover, it was determined that generally, considerable age of the agricultural equipment (in each group of machines, there are machines, the age of which exceeded 30 and even 4 years).

147 # 3487
Changes of the chemical composition of potato tubers during storage and their impact on the selected properties of crisps

During storage of potatoes, a change of the chemical composition occurs, which consists in inter alia decomposition of starch and increase of dry mass content as a result of evaporation of the part of water which may cause a culinary change. Potatoes designated for processing into fried products cannot contain more than 0.15-0.25% of reducing sugars. During the process of frying, reducing sugars react with elemental amino acid as a result of which, they form compounds of dark colour and a hazardous for health acrylamide is formed. The obtained products are bitter and their colour is undesirable. Quality of crisps, that is, defects in relation to the following was assessed: time limits of crops, temperature of tubers and sugar content in tubers after crops and during storage. The obtained results confirm the increase of dry mass and reducing sugar content and the change of colour of crisps.

147 # 3488
Mechanical properties of the selected legume seeds and their weight and thickness

The objective of the paper was to assess the correlation of mechanical properties of the selected legume seeds on their weight and thickness. The following were studied: seeds of narrow-leafed lupine Bojar and Regent, yellow lupine Mister and Taper, horse beans Amulet and Granit, and soya Aldana. The mechanical properties of seeds determined under quasi-static loads. Single seeds were loaded in a direction perpendicular to the plane of division of the cotyledon with a constant velocity of v=10 mm∙min -1. The tested cultivars of legume differed significantly with vulnerability of their seeds. Only relative deformation and relation of destructing force work to the seeds weight similarly differentiated the tested cultivars among the analysed strength parameters. The tested legume varieties had significantly different mechanical properties. Cultivars of the tested legumes, whose seeds have greater weight and thickness, were less susceptible to mechanical damage. In all varieties of seeds, the weight increase resulted in the increase of their resistance to damage, whereas the increase in the thickness of seeds clearly influenced only the reduction of deformation and ratio of destructive force and mass.

147 # 3489
Impact of the cultivators prongs elasticity on the quality and efficiency of clay soils scarification

Results of the research on the effect of the cultivator tines elasticity on the value of the quality indices and efficiency of soil loosening at four levels of depth and the speed of cutting were presented. Measurements of the surface area of the cross-section of the loosening soil and the cutting resistance necessary for determination of indices were carried out in the field conditions in the sandy clay and loamy clay at the respective moistures 11.2 and 15.6%. It was found out that the increase of the elasticity index value results in the parabolic course of indices of loosening quality and efficiency, regardless of the soil type and depth and speed of cutting. Indices of tines elasticity, at which the highest quality and efficiency of loosening is obtained, decrease with power series along with the increase of speed and depth of cutting, regardless the soil type.

147 # 3490
Robotization of packing the selected packages for agrifood products

A robotic test rigs with vacuum gripper for analysis of the packing process was presented. Two types of vacuum cups were used, Piab BX 52P and Piab F50-2. Based on the research for the packing process of cardboard packages, relations between parameters were determined, i.e. negative pressure, working speed of a robot and weight of packages. It was determined that for the process of packing 0.25 kg packages, a proper negative pressure should be 0.4 bar, whereas for 0.5 and 1 kg packages should be equal to 0.6 bar. The maximum working speed of a robot, which ensured proper execution of the packing process was 80%. Moreover, impact of the distance between packages in the initial location on the course of packing process was analysed. In this case, the best results were obtained with the use of 15 mm distance.

147 # 3491
Stability of negative pressure in IQ i Classic 300 milking apparatuses during simulation of mechanical milking

The objective of the paper was to carry out a comparative analysis of the selected pressure parameters of milking determined in IQ cluster equipped with a non-standard claw with four separate milk chambers and in Classic 300 cluster equipped with a standard claw. Measurements were carried out in the laboratory conditions with milking to the upper milk pipeline, at variable mass intensity of liquid flow (within 0-8 kg·min-1), for three penetrations of artificial teats (100, 75, 62 mm), at three values of the system vacuum (50, 48 and 46 kPa). When applying the statistical analysis, a significant impact of independent variables of the experiment on the determined vacuum parameters of milking, were determined. Analysis of the milking parameters in IQ cluster and in a classic cluster Classic 300 in the aspect of fluctuations and stabilizations of vacuum produces a basis for a statement that its structure does not deteriorate vaccum conditions within the clusters.

147 # 3492
Comparative analysis of the quality of wheat seeding with a universal seeder and a cultivation-sowing aggregate

The paper presents the research results concerning the impact of working speed, changed every 2 km∙h-1 within the scope from 6 to 14 km∙h-1 on the irregularity of seeding depth of Fregata winter wheat at the variant use of two basic elements of cultivation-sowing aggregate (universal seeder SO43/3C - 1 "Poznaniak 6" and cultivation aggregate AS30 of AGRO-MASZ company). In the I variant - cultivation-sowing treatment was carried out in two separate stages: soil cultivation and wheat seeding. Whereas in the II variant - soil cultivation treatment and seeding was carried out simultaneously. The statistical analysis which was carried out (analysis of variance) shows that working speed of sowing and cultivation-sowing aggregates has significant impact (α=0.05) on the depth of seeding wheat carried out in two variants (combined - I variant and separate - II variant), the application of the cultivation and seeding unit. Average values of sowing depth, obtained in both variants of the experiment was by approx. 15 and 6 % (respectively variant I and II) higher than the set sowing depth (3 cm) and was respectively 3.44 and 3.19 cm.

147 # 3493
Analysis of available databases in the context of air pollution monitoring from agricultural production

Agriculture is an important source of various pollutants emitted into the air. On the Internet you can find many databases containing information on environmental pollution. Among the publicly available databases are: FAOSTAT, EUROSTAT, WebDab, EDGAR, E-PRTR, CEPMEIP or AIRBASE, and among Polish: JPOAT and the National KOBIZE database. A multitude of databases containing data in this area creates the need to review and systematize their content. This article reviews some of databases containing information on the monitoring of air pollution from agricultural sources. The analyses show that the agricultural topics in the bases related to agricultural pollution constitutes only one of many elements. Sometimes the information contained therein differs from the available national data. Therefore, it was reasonable to create a database system, flagged in the article, related only to the monitoring of air pollution from agricultural production in the country.

147 # 3494
Analysis of geometry of grains of soil abrasive mass

Analysis of the geometry of soil grains for four types of soil abrasive mass was presented. Assessment of the geometry was carried out with the use of a stereometric microscope with the use of Motic Images Plus 2.0 programme. External radius of the circle inscribed in the contour line of the abrasive grain, internal radius of the circle inscribed in the contour of a grain, fields of protrusions of irregular figures of a grain and circumferences of protrusions of irregular figures were assessed. Soil fractions of gravel, sand and loam and dust in sandy and clay soils were investigated. The obtained results and statistical calculations enabled determination of significant differences in the geometry of abrasive mass of grains and their variable shape in particular soils. The smallest differences of fractions were determined for fraction of dust and loam (at the maximum 28%), whereas the biggest for sand fractions up to 79%. It proves necessary to include also geometry of soil grains in the selection process of properties of the working element surface layer to a specific type of the processed soil, next to the granulometric composition and reaction of soil. The objective of the paper was to assess geometry of grains of gravel fraction, sand and dust along with loam, which compose the selected types of soil abrasive mass.

147 # 3495
Microwave - vacuum dehydration of distillery yeast

Microwave- vacuum drying of distillery yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on the natural carriers (oat flakes, wheat bran, hay and straw) was carried out in the research. Heating with low power microwaves (180 W) at the simultaneously lowered pressure (4-6 kPa) was applied. It was found out that in the applied microwave - vacuum conditions, water from yeast cells was removed in a mild way, without damage to cell structures and dry material obtained within 30 minutes proved high vitality (84-95%) and enzymatic activity after rehydration.

147 # 3496
Research on efficiency of passing seeds through a sieve in the vibrating calibrator

The work herein concerns a seed grader. The authors of the article deal with graders powered with two vibrators working in the concurrent self-synchronization system. The objective of the paper was to determine the efficiency of passing seeds though subsequent sieves in the sieve column of the seed calibrator. Seeds divided into fractions were sieved through subsequent three sieves counting to the top of a sieve, whose mesh diameter was smaller than the biggest dimension of a seed. Efficiency of passing seeds through a sieve of diameter Dk=0.565 m was researched. Efficiency of passing seeds of different fractions through subsequent sieves is similar. The lowest intensity of seeds occurs in the moment of passing seeds through a sieve with the openings diameter equal to the upper border of a dimension of a given fraction. The obtained results allow selection of appropriate intensity of dosing seeds to a vibrating calibrator.

147 # 3497
Logical diagnostics in the assessment of technical condition of modern agricultural tractors

Precise determination of the technical condition of agricultural machinery affects the quality of technical service and its costs. Diagnostics based only on the observed classical phenomena or measurements made is burdened with considerable error. The paper presents a method of diagnosing based on logical analysis of symptoms or damage, using technical knowledge. Verification of methods was carried out by diagnosing a hydraulic lift of an agricultural tractor, when it was observed that it does not maintain predetermined heights. The presented method is universal and can be used for diagnostics of other units, however, it requires technical knowledge on the possible inefficiencies and the symptoms caused.

147 # 3498
The use of fuzzy inference in the decision-making process of purchase of an agricultural tractor

A decision related to the selection of the optimum agricultural tractor is considered by farmers as crucial, having a decisive influence on the economic effect of the farm. This is due to the need to adjust the technical and operating parameters of the tractor to the possessed machines. The paper proposes a method to support the decision of selecting an agricultural tractor that uses fuzzy logic, which allows taking into account the measurable and immeasurable criteria. Based on the theory of fuzzy sets, a procedure of ranking these criteria was suggested. The obtained ratio D c decision clearly hierarchizes the considered alternative tractors.

147 # 3499
Potential of biogas yield from sorghum bicolor (Sorghum bicolor) of ród J1052 cultivar

The paper presents the research results concerning efficiency of biogas and methane production from sorghum bicolor of ród J1052 cultivar with different length of chaff. Silage from sorghum of a varied length of chaff (to 4 mm, to 10 mm, 25-30 mm) and pigs manure constituted a research material. Laboratory tests on static methane fermentation was carried out in three replicate tests, pursuant to the guidelines of the German standard DIN 38 414 – S8. Anaerobic digestion in laboratory conditions lasted 58 days for each test in one repeat. The course of methane digestion of sorghum silage of the chaff length 25-30 mm showed higher stability in comparison to the remaining variants used in the experiment. Sorghum silage of 25-30 mm chaff length and to 10 mm with N (nitrogen used for uplift pressure of air from digestion bottle) gave the highest biogas yield (327.92 and 315.41 Ndm3∙kg smo-1). The lowest biogas and methane yield was reported in tests with sorghum silage of the chaff length up to 4 mm. This silage was characterized with relatively high percentage content of methane in biogas (59% CH4).

147 # 3500
Amplitude of disturbance of the system under pressure in the pipeline milking machine and its impact on the parameters of operation of milking apparatuses of the selected makes

The objective of the paper was to analyse the change of the disturbance amplitude Pmax of the system under pressure depending on the total stream of liquid flow in the milk pipeline, which was set Q mr and its impact on the changes of average under pressure of suction pss, amplitude of suction under pressure aps, amplitude of massage under pressure apmin the measuring milking apparatuses (of the selected makes). The measuring apparatus was connected to the installation of a pipeline milking machine in the first stand tap (towards the final unit). The set streams of liquid flow from milking apparatuses were accepted Q m within 0 to 8 l·min-1. The research was carried out at regular operation of the milking machine (system negative pressure oscillations- cyclic) and after introducing disturbance (negative pressure oscillations - irregular). For comparison of the milking machines, products of four companies were selected. The same machines of a given company (6 items) were enclosed to the milking machine installation on the pipeline. Changes of the above mentioned parameters of milking in the measuring apparatus were determined and presented depending on the maximum amplitude of disturbance P m. Models describing changes of milking parameters in the milking apparatuses of the selected companies, which are the subject of the separate article were developed.

147 # 3501
Change of surface pressures of apples in the creep test

The results of the measurements of the surface pressures including the time factor in the test of radial compression between flat panels with the use of the testing machine Instron 5566 were presented. Contour layers and distribution of the surface pressures in different stages of creep test were determined. It was proved that the average values of the surface pressures are subject to minimum changes during the whole test. Distribution of pressures on the surface of apple contact with the loading element undergoes a significant change. In the initial stage of the test, distribution of the surface pressures has a typical shape for contact issues - maximum values are in the central sphere. Value of the surface pressures in the central sphere decreases with time at the simultaneous increase in the border sphere. The contact surface with the maximum surface pressures clearly increases.

147 # 3502
The influence of temperature drying medium of the kinetics drying, polyphenols and antioxidant activity fountain dried red peppers

Many research studies have confirmed that the use of processes for the treatment of plant tissue (including drying) can, to varying degrees affect its nutritional value, the content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. The paper presents results of studies on the effect of temperature on the dynamics of drying, antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of red peppers dried with the fountain method. The temperature rise from 70° C to 90° C while maintaining the stability of other process parameters resulted in reduction of the drying time from 344 to 108 minutes, and increase of the average volumetric moisture flux by about 3.5 times. During drying of red peppers it was found that along with the increase of temperature of the drying medium the content of polyphenol compounds and antioxidant activity increases.

147 # 3503
Fleshpumkin drying in spouted bed using apple’s residues as a porous carrier

The trials were carried out in laboratory spouted dryer. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of dry granular mixture of waste pulp from the flesh of winter squash and dried apple pomace crushed under the fountain bed. Measurements were taken at constant air flow velocity (v=5,5 m.s-1) and theree temperaturas 40, 60, 70ºC. Interesting of the temperaturę of drying medium from 40 to 70ºC caused in the experiment conditions growth of average volumetric moisture flux value of ca 2,5 time.

147 # 3504
Analysis of drying of red peppers the fountain bed with microwave heating

The purpose of the study was to determine the applicability of spouted dryer heated by microwave material and obtain information about the process and the kinetics of water loss and of the effect of the drying process on antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of red pepper. During drying red peppers was found that with the increase of the microwave power is increased content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that fountain-microwave drying ovens allows for drought of good quality and improving the quality of dried peppers over traditional convection drying.

147 # 3505
Impact of speed and type of a sprayer on the degree of covering horizontal and vertical sprayed surfaces

The paper presents the results of research on the degree of covering the sprayed facilities with the use of four types of sprayers. The measurements were carried out at four work speeds of an aggregate, constant pressure of liquid and a constant dose of liquid. The tests were carried out in the laboratory conditions, for which a carrier of sprayers was used. The research was carried out on three artificial plants, on which water sensitive papers were mounted. Facilities determined as: upper levels (Apog), lower levels (Apod), vertical approach (Anj) and vertical depart (Aoj) formed probes. In order to determine the degree of covering, the papers were subjected to computer image analysis. The results were subjected to multi-factor analysis of variance, which proved that the applied sprayer and the speed of aggregate significantly influenced the degree of covering vertical facilities. In case of upper horizontal facilities, no significant impact of the working speed was reported. The increase of the spraying speed caused the increase of the degree of covering the approach surfaces. The opposite relation was reported for departure surfaces. No noticeable coverage with a sprayed liquid was noticed on horizontal objects.

147 # 3506
Analysis of wheat straw pelleting process and the legitimacy of adding bran on the example of the selected production establishment

Wheat straw pelleting process in the pellets producing establishment for the four combinations of the sieve meshes diameter in the mill 8 mm and 10 mm and the diameter of meshes in the matrix of a granulator 8 and 12 mm was analysed. The most advantageous process conditions were obtained for variant IV, i.e. a set of sieves in a mill with 8 mm diameter and 12 mm meshes of the granulator matrix when the highest performance of the granulator 1100 kg·h-1”,, the lowest current of 115 A and the best quality of pellets were obtained. It was reported that for those sets both the operation of the mill and the granulator was correct. The use of 10% added bran to the pelleting process reduced the average current of the granulator by approximately 5%, significantly improved the quality of pellets, however, it was not economically justified, increasing the cost of pellets by 25.4%.

147 # 3507
Power installed and balance of nutrients in the selected ecological farms

The basic objective of the paper is the analysis of nutrients balance in 4 selected ecological farms, which are characterized with a similar acreage (approx. 5 ha AL) and a varied production trend and equipment with mechanical tractive force. Fertilizer management in the sustainable production system has to satisfy nutritious demands of cultivation plants and to support or improve the soil fertility. Skilful use of resources of habitat shall allow obtaining good production results at possibly lowest consumption of fertilizers. At the uptake of fertilizer components, we may notice that the highest index of nitrogen uptake occurs in the animal production farm B (-188.8 kg· ha -1”) and in A2 orchard plant production farm (-168.6 kg· ha -1”). By analogy, it also concerns phosphorus and potassium uptake. Despite introduction of these components to soil, NPK balance in all farms was negative. When analysing power distribution, both in the general as well as unitary view, one may notice that the single-polar field plant production object (A1) was characterised with the highest power installed in tractors - 38.2 kW. Whereas, a single-polar orchard plant production object (A2) with the lowest index -18.4 kW.

147 # 3508
Analysis and modelling of under pressure oscillations in the milking apparatus in relation to the volume changes of the milk chamber of a collector

The objective of the paper was to analyse (under pressure oscillations) vacuum fluctuations within the cycle in the milking apparatus equipped with (collectors) claws with a variable volume of the milk chamber at the alternative milking to the upper (milk pipeline) milkline and to the (bulb) bucket in the conditions of simulated mechanical milking and to develop a mathematical formula for their determination. Measurements were carried out in the laboratory conditions at variable mass intensities of liquid flow (within 0-8 kg·min -1”), for four volumes of (collectors) claws (500, 300, 150 and 45 cm 3”) and three values of system (under pressures) vacumms (44, 46 and 48 kPa). With the use of statistical analysis a significant (impact) effect of independent variables of experience (except for (under pressure) ) on the (under pressure oscillations) vacuum fluctuations within the dp cycle was proved. The lowest values of (under pressure oscillations) vacuum fluctuations within the cycle were reported at the use of the (collector) claw with 500cm 3” volume. Using the multiple regression method with step elimination of independent variables based on the research results a mathematical and statistical model was constructed for determination of the (under pressure oscillation) vacuum fluctuation within the cycle, which takes a character of 3-parameters empirical equation in the form of dp = 4.11 + 0.93Qm + 1.02H – 0.01Vk with coefficient of determination R 2” = 0.77.

147 # 3509
Terminology in agricultural engineering in the second decade of the XXI century

In creating names of machines accepted in the Polish agricultural engineering smaller production enterprises and decentralised marketing are gaining importance. University centres are losing it. Sometimes, return to traditional names may be observed. Activity in this field requires knowledge of the language and the sense of responsibility.

147 # 3510
Technological and organizational aspects of combining agricultural production for food and energy

Evaluation of one of the most important technological and organizational conditions, that is accumulation of labour inputs, at introduction of energy crops into the existing agricultural systems was conducted. For that purpose the simulation method with the use of a farm model was applied. It was assumed that the production plan of the farm consisted of four food production technologies (winter wheat, winter rape, spring barley and maize for grain) with the acreage of 20 ha each grown in monoculture. Energy crop (willow) was introduced by replacing the least-profitable crop grown heretofore. The farmer and hired workers provide the labour resources. The analysis of the labour input accumulation was conducted over decade periods, into which the calendar year was divided. It was found out that replacing the least-profitable plant (winter wheat) with energy willow did not lead to an inadmissible labour input accumulation. For the assumptions made, the replacing of winter wheat with energy crop can be a profitable strategy.

147 # 3511
Interpolation procedures for determination of energy willow cultivation technology parameters

For the assessment of the conditions of energy crop introduction to the agricultural space it is possible to use the method of profitability simulation. The method has to take into account production technologies of the competing food and energy crops. Traditionally, production technologies are described with the aid of operation sheets. The simulation model of the defined area of agricultural space has to deal with technology diversity. In view of the computational complexity of such a model, growing along with the number of operation sheets, it becomes necessary to limit the information to the scope absolutely essential for the simulation: labour input (h·ha-1), direct production costs (PLN·ha -1”), etc. The information can be extracted from the operation sheets for a crop by setting them according to the increasing productivity (ha·season -1”) and collection of the information necessary for economic calculations, such as labour input. The data series acquired in this way make it possible to construct an interpolation procedure, in which the seasonal output (or the corresponding acreage) is the input parameter, and the result is the information such as labour input. A set of the procedures appropriately selected can replace the series of operation sheets from which it has been acquired (e.g. with the method of regression) and its advantage is the ease of interpolation of in-between values. In the present study the information acquired from interpolation procedures (as well as from operation sheets) is called “technology parameters” and the interpolation procedures themselves - “technology parameter models”. The objective of the study was to develop a method for technology-parameter model construction for the third year of energy willow production (in a three-year harvest cycle) for the assumed acreage range. The application of the method for technology-parameter model construction is presented in graphs for labour inputs in energy willow production (for pessimistic and optimistic scenarios).

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