The article presents in the synthetic manner the achievements of 20 years of the winter scientific school “Scientific, Technical and Organizational Progress in Agriculcture”. Basic terms concerning organization of scientific meetings were explained and then the origin of organization of schools in agricultural engineering, their participants and popularization activity was presented. Finally, impact of the Zakopane school on the intellectual development of its participants and their professional career was presented.
The article presents assessment of traction properties change as a result of the increase of wheel load on soil with varied properties. Investigation was carried out for a radial tyre 11.2R24, three wheel loads were used: 6110, 7330, 8060 N. Assessment of traction properties was carried out based on the comparison of the tractive force value, towing power, rolling resistance and traction efficiency and values of power on a wheel with the investigated tyre. The research was carried out in field conditions with the use of a mobile aggregate stand with a farm tractor. Significant impact of the soil condition on all analysed parameters, except for power lost for skid, was proved. Moreover, a significant impact of load changes on the tractive force and its components and components of power supplied to a wheel were reported. No impact of load changes on tractive force values was reported.
The paper aimed at distinguishing new indices for evaluation of barns for dairy cows including their technical equipment. The detailed investigations covered barns with tied and free-stall maintenance systems including farms with different size of dairy herds. The elaborated research questionnaire to carry out the investigations included the set of basic data concerning conditions of dairy production in the barns. During direct research visits in the investigated farms some new elements were observed in the barns and as a result new comparative indices were proposed to evaluate livestock buildings for dairy cows. The all investigated barns with tied maintenance system were characterized by the use of non-standard solutions in the area for cows. Such results of the investigations confirm imagination of dairy farm owners to implement changes in the technical equipment of the managed barns.
In 2012, analysis of the selected farms specialising in dairy cows breeding was carried out. The objective was an assessment of technological and functional solutions used in the dairy cattle breeding on the area of Łomżyński province. Assessment of environmental conditions in facilities for cattle, systems of animals maintenance, feeding, removal of excrements and obtaining milk was carried out. Based on the research which was carried out, one should state that within the range of the last ten years, significant changes occurred, which influenced applicable technologies and functional solutions of livestock buildings of farms specialising in milk production. Implementation of modern technologies improved animals welfare, which translated into the increase of their milk efficiency, improvement of the quality of the obtained raw material and also considerably shortened farmer's work time. Based on the research, it was found out that farmers are convinced about the significance and importance of investing in modern technological solutions.
In order to analyse the realization of the technical service of tractors, research of technical service and replacement demand including oils and filters demand was carried out. Investigation was conducted with the use of a survey addressed to people working in machine services establishments. The survey includes questions about the most common breakdowns of tractors, resulting from the discontinuation of the planned service and about the most common effects of discontinuing maintenance of tractors. In addition, issue concerning the management of waste materials, oils, greases and filters was considered. Moreover, the calculations have been carried out, which allowed indication of the amount of the cost of maintenance service of the selected tractors with 100 KM power within one service cycle.
The paper presents research results of traction abilities of a diagonal tyre 31×15.5-15 on four types of base: concrete, sod, stubble, cultivated soil. Investigation was carried out for two types of air pressure in a tyre: 0.08 and 0.2 MPa and three sizes of a vertical load of a wheel. The objective of the paper was to prove whether the change of air pressure in a tyre influences changes of traction properties of a wheel. Assessment of the impact of air pressure changes was carried out based on measured towing powers, rolling resistance and calculated power and traction efficiency. The research was conducted with the use of the stand for traction investigation aggregated with a farm tractor. The assessment of traction properties proved that a tyre with air pressure 0.2MPa shows better traction abilities - higher values of tractive force on concrete, stubble and cultivated soil, while 0.08 MPa pressure was more advantageous on sod.
The paper describes the impact of five different methods of preparing land for sowing on the energy efficiency of winter barley cultivation. The research was carried out in 2004-2009 on RSD Zawady fields. The highest index of energy efficiency was obtained in the facility, where within after-harvest cultivation, sow ploughing and appropriate treatment was carried out. Equally positive results were obtained in the facility, where after-harvesting cultivation was replaced with chemical treatment. Research results completely justify the purposefulness of elimination of double scarification treatments between harvesting a forecrop and sowing winter barley.
Production of nursery material in Podkarpackie Region in the last years has shown an increasing tendency and in 2012 amounted to over 3.8 million of fruit trees seedlings. The issue of waste biomass from agricultural and nursery production is significant since each time there is a need of waste disposal. Not in each case it is possible to carry out in the form of natural fertilizer. However, the use for energy purposes is always possible. The objective of the paper was energy analysis of waste biomass from production of different types of fruit trees. Laboratory tests concerning calorific value of particular species of stocks for production of fruit trees and on the content of ash and elements (C, H, N and S) in their chemical composition were carried out. Assessment of biomass yield from 1 ha of the investigated types of stocks after tenoning was carried out.
The objective of the paper was to determine the selected electric properties of potato tubers in the context of their biometric features. The research was carried out in 2011-2012 in laboratory conditions. Early cultivars of potato tubers constituted the research object: Arielle, Lord and Denar. Subsequent biometric features of tubers were covered by the research: length, thickness, width and weight. Based on biometric features, subsequent coefficients of tubers shape were listed: coefficient of elongation, coefficient of flatness and weight coefficient of dimension. The following electric properties of a tuber were measured: voltage and strength. The result of analysis of variance concerning the impact of potato cultivars accepted for the experiment on the value of voltage and stregth was significant. The research results indicate that all biometric features of Lord and Denar potato tubers significantly influenced the investigated dependent variables. In case of Arielle cultivar, no significant impact of the coefficient of elongation on the intensity and coefficient of flattening on voltage was determined. A strong correlation relation between the measured electric voltage and strength in potato tubers was reported.
The objective of the paper was to describe the kinetics of microwave-vacuum drying of pepper carried out at the constant power of microwaves amounting to 480 W and three scopes of pressures 2-4; 4-6 and 6-8 kPa. Changes of temperatures of the material in the time of drying and polyphenols content as well as antioxidant activity of dried pepper were determined. The research which was carried out allowed the statement that two drying periods for all three scopes of pressures may be determined: period of constant speed of drying described with a linear equation and the period of variable speed of drying described with exponential equation. Microwave-vacuum drying (VM) at the pressure 2-4 Pa resulted in the decrease of polyphenol compounds content for the value of 5.82 mgGAE/1 g s.s. and slight decrease of antioxidant activity to 74.90µmolTE/1g s.s in comparison to the raw material before drying and convective drying. Maximum temperature of heating a sample was 97ºC.
The objective of the paper was comparison of the selected metrologic parameters of two types of thermistors: without a shielding material made of acid-proof steel. The research was carried out in laboratory conditions with the use of the computer test stand, developed for the research needs. Comparative analysis of temperature sensors was carried out with the use of Heavside's jump function method carried out with the use of the programmed pump controller and a recorder of measuring signals of high resolution. The tests proved higher sensibility of a thermistor without additional shield in comparison to the sensor structure with additional shield made of acid-proof steel. The highest values of sensibility of the researched temperature sensors were obtained at short intervals in the liquid flow.
Field experiments assessed yielding, chemical composition and the selected quality parameters of starch potato tubers of Pasat, Zuzanna, Jasia, Hinga and Skawa cultivars varying with the length of vegetation period. Depending on the cultivar and the year of research, total tuber yield ranged from 19.9 to 37.8 t·ha -1, while starch yield from 3.23 to 6.68 t·ha -1. The analysed cultivars were characterized by a relatively low starch content in tubers (15.8-18.4%) and high protein concentrations (2.08-2.41%). The biggest content of these components was assessed in Skawa c.v. and the lowest in Jasia. Excessive amount of rainfall during potato vegetation unfavourably affected the amount of total and marketable yield of tubers, starch concentrations in tubers and as a result the starch yield per area unit, and mean tuber weight.
The paper presents results of research on the influence of impact loading on sensitivity of apples to bruising at variable values of the drop height and the number of impacts. Values of power impulses, contact surface area and surface pressure as the function of height and the number of bruises were determined. Photographic documentation was prepared, which served for carrying out a computer analysis of images in order to determine the volume of the damaged tissue and for presenting the assessment of quality sensitivity of apples to impact. Measurements at impact loading were carried out with the use of Tekscan apparatus on a specially constructed research stand, whose operation was based on the pendulum principle. Analysis of volume changes of deformation as the function of temporary powers during impact proved that at the increase of loading from 57 N to 106 N a violent increase of the volume value from 363 do 6233 mm3 took place. Analysis of surface pressures confirmed occurrence of maximum values for first impact to apples, whereas the highest value of 2.256 MPa was obtained for the drop height amounting to 250 mm. Independently from the drop height, after ten impacts, surface pressures stabilize at the level 0.160 MPa. It was determined that the investigated apples prove high sensitivity under the influence of impact loading. The drop height was estimated to be 30 mm, which may be recognized as the value, which does not cause plastic deformations.
The paper presents results of changes of surface pressures of apples placed in the box depending on the load- the height of a layer. Firstly, compression tests of whole apples were carried out to the level of damage - the moment of reaching the biological resistance limit. Based on curves of forces compression as the function of relocation F = f(ΔL), scopes of forces, which cause local damage to the inside structure of fruit, and the maximum destruction forces were determined Fmax. With the use of Tekscan apparatus, surface pressures of apples were determined in the static conditions due to simultaneous registering of compression forces and the responding surface of contact with the surface of the sensor placed at the bottom of the box. Analysis of the average forces distribution in the selected 5 points proved their varied nature. The maximum values of forces for a middle sphere of the box were obtained and they amounted to 6.83 N at a full loading of the box with three layers of apples. Increase of the contact surface of apples with side walls caused decrease of the surface pressure to the value of 0.034 MPa, whereas in the places of adherence of apples (central sphere of the bottom of the box), a decreased contact surface determined the increase of pressures to 0.082 MPa. The investigation, which was carried out in the conditions of static loads with three layers of apples, prove that a single box constitutes a good object for storing and transport.
The objective of the paper was to analyse technical investments in the selected agricultural farms within last five years. The research included both civil structures as well as technical equipment in 40 agricultural farms on the territory of Mazowieckie Voivodeship. The analysis was carried out with reference to the area of agricultural land of a farm and the size of commodity production. It was determined, inter alia, that technical investments in the investigated farms, were financed from many sources, but not all forms of financing concerned all types of investments. Besides, no significant relations between the area of agricultural land or the size of production and the financing source of technical investments was reported.
The research covered Lord cultivar of potatoes, which was cultivated in three technologies used for an early crop, i.e. cultivation under perforated plastic (A), agrotextile (B) and in the traditional technology (field cultivation without covers), the so called control (C). The objective of the paper was to analyse the height and quality of potato tuber yield, development of plants and economic efficiency. The obtained results prove that cultivation of potatoes under covers positively influences the increase of weight of tubers referred to a single plant, participation in the yield of roundly shaped tubers, growth of the assimilation surface of plants (number of shoots, their length and the number of leaves level) which translates into the growth of the total yield out of a hectare. Efficiency of early potato cultivation under covers proves that one-year use of covers does not bring satisfactory economic effects in comparison to traditional cultivation, while a 5-year use considerably increases economic efficiency of using covers. From among two investigated methods of cultivation under covers, higher economic efficiency in the annual use of a cover was reported for agrotextile whereas in the 5-year use for perforated plastic.
The objective of the paper was to show whether there are differences in the level of mechanical damage of potato tubers collected in different technologies. The level of damage was estimated on every stage of potato harvesting in each technology. The scope of the paper covered research of the damage size on particular stages of harvesting and loading potatoes to the storage (5 measuring points: a separating belt of a combine, a trailer, a charging hopper, a separating belt of a sorter, a heap) in the 1-stage harvesting technology with the use of GRIMME SE-170 combine (fig. 1) and two options of 2-stage harvesting with the use of 4-row digger Grimme RL-3600 and Grimme GT-170 or Grimme GZ - 1700 combine (fig. 2). The size of damage was expressed with the index of bruises of tubers referred to 1 kg. The obtained results proved that at the 1-stage harvesting, higher values of the damage index were reported on the stage of loading the combine tank, trailers and a heap in the storage in comparison to 2-stage harvesting. From among two harvesting technologies of 2-stage harvesting, higher values of damage were reported for technology that used Grimme GT-170 combine, mainly at the stage of loading the combine tank.
The paper presents economic and ecological results of using a heat pump (of the assumed heating power at the level of 9.7 kW) in the plastic tunnel (covered with double plastic) of varied usable area. Four heating boilers,commonly used in gardening, differing with the grill structure and possibility of installing a dust removal device were accepted for ecological analysis (calculated into the costs of using environment on account of hazardous substances emission to atmosphere). In the economic analysis, at the accepted installation costs related to the use of the discussed heat pump, two parameters (static and dynamic), that is: simple return period and current net value of the investment (NPV) commonly used in the investment analysis were applied. For the accepted assumptions, usable area of the facility and the number of years of usage, at which, the discussed investment is competitive towards other methods of alternative investment interest, were indicated.
The purpose of this paper was to assess the labour efficiency in agriculture against the background of the obtained plant production in agricultural farms. First, labour inputs and raw materials and materials inputs were assessed; size of the global agricultural production in the investigated farms was also determined. It was indispensable for calculation of the net production and then of labour efficiency. The scope of work covered research in 30 farms located on the territory of Miechów commune, Małopolskie Voivodeship. Selection of farms was intentional- objects were only plant production occurred. The highest level of total agricultural production (plant) was characteristic for vegetable production. Unitary global production in this case was 8244.3 PLN·ha -1. For comparison grains production was 2295.2 PLN·ha -1 of grains and production of root crops was 6140.3 PLN·ha -1. The assessed total labour efficiency was 11 PLN·man hour-1. The highest was for farms from the 3 rd area group (where vegetables cultivation prevails). In this case PLN 46.8 was for one man hour. The second group of objects (from 5 to 10 ha) obtained a positive efficiency index, however its value was only 4.7 PLN·man hour -1. A very disadvantageous phenomena was reported in case of the smallest farms of 5 ha area – the evaluated index was valued under zero and was -26.5 PLN·man hour -1. In these farms, overinvesting in the machinery park is noticeable, which utilized to a low extent influences high indirect costs related to inter alia amortization of the fixed means.
Research results of the impact of speed and depth of cutting on the quality and efficiency of soil scarification with the spring cultivator's prong were presented. The research was carried out in field conditions in sandy and loamy clay at the moisture amounting to respectively 11.2 and 15.6%. Index of scarification quality was determined based on measurements of increase of the cross section surface area of the scarified soil and the calculated value of cutting cross section. Scarification efficiency index was calculated as proportion of the quality index and cutting resistance. It was determined that the increase of depth from 6 to 12 cm and the increase of cutting speed from 1.0 to 3.0 ms -1 cause decrease of both scarification quality index as well as scarification efficiency, which may be described with power functions independently from the soil type. Decrease of the index value was explained with occurrence of two spheres of soil deformation with narrow tools and the increase of soil strength parameters at the increase of its deformation speed.
The article presents the research results of the damage scale of trees at forestry works with the use of specialistic machines. The research was carried out in Rokita Forestry Management, Regional Management of National Forests in Szczecin. The effects of using cutting and logging machines were taken into account. The works were carried out in thinning forest stand. Based on the obtained results it was found out that the biggest damage concerning the number are generated by harvesters during cutting trees. Damage concern the exposed tree alburnum in the amount of 57 item·ha -1. At the logging works with the use of forwarder 4 item·ha -1 of broken branches were reported. Number of damage was decisively higher at the works performed in a late positive thinning, where there were no skidding roads. In thinning, where technological roads were used, the number of damage decisively decreased. Technological parameters of machines were not adjusted to technological parameters of the forest stand in 50%.
The objective of the paper was to create "Stimulation" application supporting calculation of the selected pressure parameters of milking based on the mathematical formula available in the subject literature. On account of functionality and simple composition, the application was written in Borland Deweloper Studio 2006 environment in which Delphi device is a programming language. With the use of "Stimulation" application, for example one may calculate negative vacuum fluctuations based on models developed and quoted in literature including also massaging pressures. The programme may be developed with subsequent mathematical models and lacking coefficients may be introduced, enriching the base of existing models.
The review of the subject concerning a plant protection technology with a particular interest in the issues concerning spraying quality and drift of the sprayed liquid was presented in the paper. Irregularity of the fall distribution of the sprayed liquid, degree of the sprayed surfaces covering and drifting of utility liquid are the most significant indexes of the spraying quality. The purpose of the paper was to determine a prevailing subject and appearing trends in the research based on the analysis of objectives and results of the published papers from the research carried out in the 21st century. The scope of the review covers experimental results of both Polish as well as foreign scientists. Papers related to the investigated sprayers, where the significance of the selection of the proper sprayer in relation to technical, technological and weather conditions are emphasised, prevail in the analysis.
A field study was carried out in 2011-2012 at the Research Station Brody belonging to Poznan University of Life Sciences. The experiment was assumed with blocks randomized in four repetitions. The objective of the study was to determine the size and structure of energy inputs incurred as a result of catch crop and varied field cultivation systems of spring wheat production use. It was found that the use of catch crop from white mustard sown after skimming resulted in the increase of the accumulated energy input by 13.7 per cent and in direct sowing technology by 31.5 per cent as compared to the treatment where catch crop was not cultivated. Replacement of plow tillage with
a cultivation aggregate decreased accumulated energy inputs by 9.3 per cent. The value of energy efficiency index was the lowest at spring wheat in plow technology and there was significant difference as compared to the other technology.
The work includes results of the research concerning influence of the width of an opening of a pin sowing unit and the width of interrows as well as the sowing speed on shaping the unit life space of wheat plants. The research was carried out on a laboratory stand in two stages. The first stage covered measurements related to specifying capacity of the examined sowing unit, the second stage included measurements related to determination of the real life area of wheat plants and degree of using the theoretical life area of plants resulting from the accepted width of interrows and the average distance between seeds in a row. Analysis of variance of the obtained results proved that from among the accepted independent variables, only one independent variable: width of interrows significantly influences (α = 0.05) the degree of use of the theoretical area at a constant number of sowing - 220 kg·ha-1 resulting from agrotechnical requirements. The sum of real unit life spaces of wheat plants on the measured distances was ca. 90 to 356 cm 2, which constituted from 31 to 83% of the theoretical life area of wheat plants, determined based on the number of sown seeds and the established width of interrows.
The paper presents results of the research concerning supply of agricultural farms in the selected production means. It was found out that all respondents purchase mineral fertilizer, while half of them buy NPK nitrogen, potassium and calcium fertilizers and 10% - only two types of fertilizers. Almost all farmers buy weed killers, antifungal and insecticidal substances and 40% buy antirodent substances, but in majority of cases this group does not include farmers, who run farms with the area exceeding 50 ha and producing plants. Mineral fertilizers (except for calcium) are bought by farmers every 6 months or once a year, while 60% out of the second group farms on over 50 ha and the same number carries out mixed farming. Crop protection chemicals are bought in majority twice or once a year. Period of storing fertilizers is varied but farmers storing for half a year constitute the most numerous group. The presented results suggest that logistic activities of companies, which distribute production means used in farming, should be based on the analysis of the farms size and their type in a given region, because impact of these factors on the structure of purchase of production means was determined.
Results of drying apples in the form of a 10 mm cube with a combined method with spouted bed microwaves heating (FM) at the air drying temperature 60-65ºC and microwaves of 100W power were analysed. Drying kinetics of material and the selected quality features of dried apples were described: colour, compression strength and rehydration. Experimental results were referred to analogical effects of drying apples in the spouted bed (F) and with the use of microwaves heating at the reduced pressure (MV). It was found out that the process, where spouted bed drying and microwaves heating took place with greater intensity than spouted bed drying without additional heating and spouted- microwave dried apples were characterised with higher quality than the remaining dried apples.
In a one-factor field experiment the size and structure of energy inputs incurred for cultivation of the hybrid rye and the size of the energy effectiveness index were compared. The size of the accumulated energy inputs was not varied in case of the compared cultivation systems, it mainly depended on the accumulated energy inputs brought in the form of materials (ca. 85%). The use of non-ploughed cultivation required energy inputs brought in the form of fuel (by 9.3% in comparison to ploughed cultivation) and in the form of aggregates (by 2.3% in comparison to ploughed cultivation). The applied cultivation systems did not differentiate the energy effectiveness of production and the determined difference was approx. 1% in both cases.
Abstract. The paper presents the energy analysis of horizontal ground exchangers of a heat pump. Three types of exchangers made of polyethylene pipes, placed in the ground single U, double U and spirally shaped were analysed. Exchangers were placed in the depth from 1.5 to 2.3 m. Thermal capacity of exchangers at varied energy demand was determined. For the existing research conditions, it was proved that the highest amount of energy is obtained in the horizontal exchanger placed in the double U configuration, the average unit thermal power capacity of which was 21.5 W from 1 current meter of a pipe. The unit power obtained from the remaining two exchangers was at the average by 40% lower and was within the range 8 to 17 W from 1 current meter of a pipe.
The paper presents the results of the heat pump operation cooperating with a buffer bin with a variable volume included in the heating system of the greenhouse facility. The research results cover the analysis of physical parameters of the heat pump in varied conditions of the power demand. The research was carried out during operation of the pump, which cooperated with three selected volumes of the buffer bin. The obtained results allow statement that application of buffer bins is justified in the heating systems of greenhouse facilities supplied with the heat pump. A higher volume of the bin allows obtaining a higher index of efficiency and higher endurance of the spring aggregate operation. Increasing the buffer bin volume allows elimination of energy peaks and considerably improves internal microclimat conditions. Increasing the bin volume from 120 to 350 litres we obtain the increase of COP index by 80% and we eliminate approx. 30% of turn ons of the compressor operation within one day.
The paper presents the assessment of the number of pellets with fissures, length, diameter, hardness and mechanical endurance of pellets depending on the composition and temperature of their storing. Pellet samples used in the research were produced in a pelleting machine with the 8 mm matrix openings diameter. Pine sawdust and pine sawdust with 30 or 50% addition of beech sawdust were used as raw material for production of pellets. The research was carried out on the pellets stored for 3 hours in 20, 40 and 60ºC temperature. Mechanical endurance of pellets produced of pine sawdust and stored in 20ºC was 98.2% whereas for pellets produced of pine sawdust with 50% addition of beech sawdust was 96.8%. The research proved that the composition significantly influenced the results of mechanical endurance of the investigated pellets in the accepted temperatures. Temperature of storing pellets did not significantly influenced the results of their hardness.
The objective of the paper was estimation of the impact of cooling manure in a pigpen with deep bedding through the use of the heat recovery installation on emission of gas pollution (NH3, N2O andCH4) from the fattening house. The research was carried out in the building for pigs maintained in deep bedding equipped with the heat recovery installation within one year. Central heating and utility hot water installations of a residential building constituted the upper source. The paper presents that between the amount of the collected heat and percentage emission of gas pollutions (NH3, N2O, CH4) there is a correlation (p<0.05). These relations were expressed with logarythmic regression curves: y = 10.8ln(x) - 2.2 (R2=0.83) for ammonia, y = 11.5ln(x) – 28.8 (R2=0.9) for nitrous oxide and y = 6.9ln(x) – 13.4 (R2=0.7) for methane. Cooling manure in a pigpen with deep bedding through the use of the heat recovery installation reduced emission of harmful gases at the average by 15.7% for NH3, and 16.2% for N2O and by 12.1% for CH4.
This paper presents the results of the caloric value, content of water, ash and carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in the four types of briquettes. Material consisted of wheat straw briquettes with additives such as alder sawdust, meadow hay and oats. The results were used for comparison purposes of the basic physicochemical parameters of briquettes. It was determined that the briquettes obtained from a combination of straw and alders sawdust have the highest caloric value. In addition, the increased level of ash remaining after burning in the samples, which had higher carbon content, was reported which may indicate losses related to incomplete burning.
The objective of the paper was to determine models describing changes of the selected milking parameters i.e. average suction negative pressure pss, amplitude of suction negative pressure aps,amplitude of massage negative pressure apm in the measuring milking machines (of the selected companies) from changes of disturbance amplitude Pmax. Measurement machines were connected to the pipe milking machines installation in the first stand tap (towards the final unit) with the set stream of liquid outflow Qm = 2 and 6 l·min-1. Models of changes of the above mentioned parameters were developed for regular operation of the pipe milking machine (system negative pressure oscillations- cyclic) and after introducing disturbance (negative pressure oscillations - irregular). For comparison of the milking machines, products of five companies were selected. The same machines of the given company (6 items) were enclosed to the milking machine installation. Characteristic parameters of models were described: gradients a, absolute terms b. Resistance (sensitivity) of the milking machine is higher for the selected milking parameter if the change of this parameter caused by disturbance is lower. Selected models enable assessment of the milking parameters resistance to disturbances.
Avocado fruit were subjected to drying with three methods: convectionally, spouted drying with microwave heating and microwave drying in the reduced pressure conditions. Impact of the selected parameters of carrying out the process on the quality of dried avocado was researched. Properties of the product were determined with instrumental methods (compression work, cutting work, stress relaxation ratios and colour parameters: L*, a*, b*) and based on sensory evaluation (hardness, brittleness, elasticity and colour). Statistically significant impact of drying technology on all analysed parameters and indexes was confirmed. Only conditions of spouted -microwave drying did not influence sensor evaluation within hardness, brittleness and elasticity. The strongest relation was reported between dried avocado cutting strength and brittleness ratio. Highly elastic dried fruit is not accepted by clients.
The quality of pumpkin dried with a spouted method with microwave heating was analysed. During spouted drying, two levels of microwaves power were applied: 100W and 250W. The research was carried out for blanched material and not subjected to pretreatment. Compressive strength, cutting strength, stress relaxation index and dried material colour were determined with instrumental methods. The product was subjected to sensory evaluation including intensity of occurrence of hardness, brittleness, elasticity and colour ratio. It was determined that sensory evaluation of hardness and brittleness of dried material is strictly related to compressive strength of the investigated material. There is a relation between the colour determined with instrumental methods and sensory evaluated intensity of occurrence of colour ratio. Spouted-microwave drying negatively influences elasticity of dried pumpkin. Blanching influences hardness and brittleness of dried pumpkin and increases elasticity of dried pumpkin in comparison to the product of material which was not pretreated.
The article presents dependence between the knives shape and the type of the cut raw material and the temperature increase during mechanical meat cutting. The presented results constitute a continuance of the author's research developed with a subsequent shape of cutting knives and additional types of the cut meat. The results were obtained with the use of a laboratory cutter MADO Garant MTK 661 equipped with three sets of knives. In the process of meat cutting pig meat (blade bone) and two types of poultry meat (thigh and fillet) as well as functional and taste additives were used. The scope of the research included preparing three fillings of each type of raw material, using subsequently another shape of cutting knives. During the process, temperature of the filling was measured each second. The obtained results were presented as the filling temperature change in time and the comparison depending on the cut material and the knives shape.
The objective of the presented research was to determine the effect of a spray boom height and utility liquid pressure on downwind spray drift deposited on the ground. In the field experiment a field crop sprayer was used with 12 m spray boom and LU 120-03 flat-fan nozzles. During the tests the spray was applied on the 60 m long area and as wide as the sprayer. For each combination of the spray boom height (0.35; 0.5; 0.75 m) and operational pressure (0.15; 0.3; 0.5 MPa) 5 applications (replications) were carried out with BSF fluorescent dye, at driving velocity 6.0 km∙h-1. The results confirmed a significant influence of the spray boom height, liquid pressure and wind speed on spray drift. The treatments with low spray boom at 0.35 m and at low pressure 0.15 MPa resulted in drift reduction by 50% to 3 m downwind of the sprayed crop, compared to the reference application parameters: spray boom height 0.5 m and liquid pressure 0.3 MPa. The excessive height of the toolbar 0.75 m and medium pressure 0.3 MPa, applied at wind speed 2.4 m.s-1 increased spray drift by 75%. The highest drift was observed for the spray boom height 0.75 m and liquid pressure 0.5 MPa
The objective of the paper was to formulate and construct the control and stabilization system of absolute pressure, supplying autonomous milking unit. This system may also be used in different solutions basing on the so-called quarter milking, however, one requirement must be met - suction pressure is individually supplied to each cup operating a quarter of an udder. The scope of the paper included: developing the concept of the control system, construction of a real facility, programming PLC controller for the accepted control algorithm (basing on the previous scientific research of authors) and verification of the system operation on the laboratory stand. The main element of the control system is a microprocessor controller, where algorithm of pressure control, with the use of fuzzy logic, was programmed. Results of the experimental research allowed a positive assessment of the described technical solution.