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Agricultural Engineerin, 2013, Issue 3 (145)
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145 # 3392

145 # 3393
Comparative analysis of the selected processes of the technical service of agricultural machines

Using a comparative study in the area of sciences is universal and has a long tradition. However, separate comparative disciplines are not created at a wide scale. Usefulness of applying the comparative study method is one among many of ways of examining the reality. It is useful on account of the great diversity of the structure of agricultural engineering objects and processes associated with them, which can be easily analyzed with the use of the comparative study. In the agricultural engineering it is possible to compare things and processes at the stage of the design, the structure and the use of agricultural machines, as well as to compare other processes occurring in the area of the technique. The study was conducted on the example of the information obtained through computerized diagnostic tests used in the diagnosis of farm tractors and the selected processes of planned maintenance service review.

145 # 3394
Analysis of labour inputs in various milking systems

Research was carried out in four cowsheds, where various milking systems were operated - a bucket milking machine, a pipe milking machine, a herringbone milking parlour 2x4 and 2x9 stands. For morning and evening milking which was carried out timing of devices and staff operation time was carried out. Three indexes were used for the system comparison. Operational efficiency W07 – number of milked cows in time T07 from the moment a milkman enters to the moment of milking machine is cleaned. Effective productivity W1 – number of milked cows from the moment of preparing the first cow's udder, a bucket milking machine, a pipe milking machine or from the moment the first cow enters the milking stand in the parlour to the moment of taking off the last apparatus or respectively from the moment the last cow leaves the stands to time T1. Milker's efficiency Wdoj – number of milked cows from the moment a milker leaves the cowshed per 1 person. Operational efficiency in comparison to effective productivity depending on the milking system may differ by almost 50% for a bucket milking machine and by 30% for the milking parlour.

145 # 3395
Analysis of the impact of the selected profiles of rotor blades on the power generated by mini power wind plant

The article presents the research results of the power generated by the wind power plant equipped interchangeably with three different rotors. Testing was carried out on the mini power wind plant JSW 750-12 produced by KOMEL company. Operation of the rotor provided with the power plant and two new rotors of two-profile blades were analysed during the research. Profiles of NACA family were used for design of the first rotor's blades and GOE family profiles were used for designing the second rotor's blades. Testing was carried out in the aerodynamic tunnel, enabling the wind power plant analysis within the speed of 5 to 16 m·s -1. Additionally, during the research, wedge angles of rotor blades were modified. As a result, 15 characteristics of power were determined (power generated by the wind power plant as a function of wind speed). The use of new rotors of the power plant, enabled wind power plant to generate higher power than at the use of original factory rotors in the whole scope of wind speed. Suggestion of a new research direction, which would allow improvement of electric current generator structure and therefore lead failure-free operation of the electric power plant, is an additional effect.

145 # 3396
The use of ground heat exchanger in inventory facilities

The article presents a concept of using a ground heat exchanger of gravel-water type for air conditioning and support of heating of the existing inventory facilities, where pigs are bred. Analysis of piggery demand for degree of air and heat exchange was analysed. Based on current consumption of electric energy for air-conditioning and heating needs of inventory facilities, a concept alternative solution based on the ground heat exchanger was suggested. Moreover, economic analysis of the execution of the undertaking was carried out. It was proved that the use of gravel and water ground heat exchanger in the air-conditioning system and the system of heating inventory facilities allows maintaining appropriate climatic conditions and is justified both from the economic and ecological point of view.

145 # 3397
New tools for the mechanical control of weeds in organic crops

The article presents the main development trends of operational elements for mechanical weed control in row crops and intertillage. The paper focuses mainly on tools for row weed control. It results from the area, where considerable difficulties in weed control occur. The working solutions have been analysed in terms of effectiveness, disadvantages and advantages. Based on the various solutions, own criteria, according to which, new operational device should be built in the aggregate working tool, were suggested.

145 # 3398
The influence of mechatronic starting knotters actuating mechanism on parameters and quality of work of the wicker harvesting machine

As a part of realisation of the target project by the Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering in Poznan, a wicker harvesting machine, equipped with a mechanical starting knotters actuating mechanism, was developed. Then, as a result of further research a mechatronic starting knotters actuating mechanism was developed and applied in the machine. The aim of the research work, included in this paper, was to compare the performance of the machine with a mechanical and mechatronic starting knotters actuating mechanism. Field tests of willow harvesting machine were setting the time by carrying out the timings of time troubleshooting. The research found that the use of the mechatronic starting knotters actuating mechanism increased the capacity from 0.5 ha·h -1 to 0.56 ha·h -1 and allowed its maintenance-free operation.

145 # 3399
Methodology of the inspection of the spraying equipment mounted on trains

Directive 2009/128/EC on sustainable use of pesticides obligates the member states to include the technical condition of railway sprayers mounted on trains. Within the frame of the Multiannual Programme of the Research Institute of Horticulture a methodology for such inspection was elaborated. Basing on the literature review and on the own survey it was stated, that two kinds of the sprayers: sprayers similar to the field crop sprayers named here the “platform sprayers” and the rail-way units for chemical weed killing (Polish acronym – CHOT) are used for weed killing on the railways. The proposed methods and criteria for the inspection of elements of these sprayers do not considerably differ from the demands for the inspection of the field crop sprayers. The fundamental differences for the proposed methodology distinguishing it from the field crop sprayers, result from the place of application (railway track) and the driving speeds (up 40 km·h -1). Moreover, the new procedure of inspection of the injection systems used in the railway units for weed killing was suggested.

145 # 3400
Impact of storage conditions on beetroot firmness

The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of conditions and storage period of beetroots on their firmness. It is a significant assessment parameter of vegetables quality. The research showed how storing time of Red ball beetroot in a cellar or a freezer influences this parameter. The research covered measurement of the maximum power obtained in the compression test of cylinder and cube shaped samples. They were carried out soon after cropping and in the period of 4-months storing in a three-weeks cycle. Analysis of the obtained results showed uniformity of groups, which proved variability of beetroots quality along with passing time. Analysis of regression allowed obtaining the function of the highest adjustment of the research results to a theoretical model.

145 # 3401
Agricultural engineering in the United States of America

The paper presents the position of agricultural engineering in the United States as a scientific discipline, a field of academic education and its participation in innovation transfer to agrifood sector. The decreasing number of students and financial resources for agricultural research in the United States enforces transformation in agricultural engineering. Such changes are oriented mainly on extending the area of interest and permanent updating of research topics based on the requirements of farmers and manufactures of agricultural machines. The area of expertise of agricultural engineer-ing in the U.S. is changing towards rather biological than technical issues, that is engineering of biosystems. That should be also our guiding direction of future transformations. The American system RET (research, extension, teaching) should be the model for the inevitable transformation of the Polish agricultural engineering. The system is a source of inspiration for science and effective tool for the transfer of innovation into agrifood sector. It also facilitates the process updating teachers’knowledge and promotes improvement of academic education.

145 # 3402
Impact of ultraviolet radiation on the growth, development and cropping of potatoes (initial research)

The aim of the paper was investigation of ultraviolet radiation (UVC) impact on the growth, development and cropping of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L). 132 potato plants of medium late cultivar Jelly, vegetation of which was carried out under the plastic tunnel constituted the research object. The author's stand for irradiation of plant material with ultraviolet was used. Seed potatoes, before placing them in the soil, were radiated with ultraviolet rays for 1,10,60 minutes at the constant distance of UVC radiators from the bottom of a chamber - 0.7 m. During vegetation period the rate of germination, flowering and withering of haulms, length and number of stems was determined and after harvesting the yield structure of each plant was determined. Essential impact of ultraviolet on the development of aboveground part of potato plants was reported. Statistical calculations were carried out at the assumed level of significance α=0.05.

145 # 3403
Fuel consumption in soil tillage depending on its simplification and previous crop in the crop rotation

The study investigated fuel consumption in tillage practices and whole ploughing, noploughing and minimum, limited to disking, soil tillage in winter oilseed rape, winter wheat, spring barley, maize and sugar beet depending on their previous crops in the crop rotation. Dates of harvest for each of the five crops were different, which diversified the length of time for sowing successive crop and the number of possible practices in a particular manner of the soil cultivation process. The highest fuel consumption, more than 22 l·ha-1, was recorded during autumn ploughing not preceded by other tillage practice in spring cereals and sugar beet grown in the stand after corn. In the agricultural practices of each plant, with the exception of winter rape in the stand after cereals, ploughing tillage required the largest fuel inputs. Consumption of diesel oil during the preparation of the soil in this manner under sugar beet after winter wheat in the autumn term of manure was 46.2 l·ha-1. The significant reduction in fuel consumption by more than 20 l·ha-1, allows limiting the soil tillage to 1-2 disking, depending on the crop and its previous crop in the crop rotation.

145 # 3404
Analysis of the use of specialistic computer programmes in agricultural farms of Łomżyński province

The analysis of the use of computer programmes supporting running an agricultural farm by farmers was carried out. The research was carried out in 2012 in the form of a direct survey of owners of 54 agricultural farms located in Łomżyński province in Podlaskie voivodeship. A survey questionnaire, which consisted of three parts was a research instrument. The first part concerned information on the farm owner, the second on a farm, while the third part of the questionnaire comprised questions on specialists computer programmes, which farmers use in their farms. Although, majority of respondents have heard of specialists computer programmes for agriculture, only 27% of them use such programmes in their farms. Programmes supporting plant production (55%), animal production (16%) and accounting programmes (27%) are the most frequently used computer programmes. As much as 82% of the questioned farmers proved, that they were influenced by the production profile of their farms while selecting a computer programme. The most popular were: NawSald (41%), AgroSystem (26%), Zootechnik Bydło (16%) and Agronom (14%).

145 # 3405
Impact of stress relaxation on surface pressure changes of apples

In the paper changes of surface pressures distributions as a function of time for apples subjected to stress relaxation tests were presented. Compression tests of whole fruit were carried out in order to determine maximum displacements leading them to material damage. Based on the obtained curves F = f (ΔL) displacement values were determined, above which processes of intensive destruction of apple parenchyma structure take place. Stress relaxation tests at dislocation corresponding to local fruit damage - at the level of 20% of the value ΔL max were carried out, at the same registering the surface pressure distribution. During relaxation clear changes of surface pressure were reported. Stress relaxation process was characterized by a gradual reduction of maximum surface pressure to the level of 0.31 MPa and clear homogenization of their transverse distribution. Levelling transverse distribution of surface pressure is visible after approximately 300 s from the moment of placing the load - 150 s from the moment of starting the relaxation process.

145 # 3406
Impact of the amount of fertilization on NPK and humus in soil balance in the selected plant production technologies

The paper presents results of analysis of the size of mineral and natural fertilization in various cultivation technologies on NPK and humus in soil balance. The research was carried out for cultivation of plant species, which may be possibly used for production of bio-energy. Data was collected form operation sheet of the selected surveyed agricultural farms. 8 technologies of cultiva-tions, varied on account of total number of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium doses in the applied mineral and natural fertilizers were investigated. With the use of the computer programme, developed within the scope and for the research need, NPK and soil humus balance were developed in relation to plants species and its nutrition demand, soil type and the amount of the obtained crop, was calcu-lated. From among the analysed cultivation technologies, the biggest losses in the amount of the researched elements (NPK) were reported for sugar beet cultivation (tech. 2W). They were respectively: nitrogen 157.00 kg·ha -1, phosphorus 93.00 kg·ha -1, potassium 385.00 kg·ha -1. Cultivation carried out in this technology depleted soil in humus by 1.54 t·ha -1. High, positive values of the balance were obtained for cultivation of rye for green forage (tech. 3M). Content of nitrogen in soil decreased by 202.60 kg·ha -1, phos-phorus by 235.20 kg·ha -1, potassium by 154.20 kg·ha-1. Calculations proved  also in case of this technology, - increase in the amount of humus at the highest level by 4.38 t·ha -1. Based on results, one may state that in case of these technologies, doses and type of the applied fertilizers should be verified.

145 # 3407
Analysis of the amount of impurities received in the feed production process with recirculation of ingredients

The objective of the paper was to estimate the amounts of the impurities obtained in the feed production process, depending on the kind of a compound, and to compare the amounts of the received impurities depending on the mixing time. The scope of the paper included conducting research experiments for three compounds varying with the formula with 8, 12 and 14 ingredients for various mixing times: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. The measurements of the mass were carried out in several points of the process line: an impact screen, a cyclone separator, a shaving and dust extractor, and in the final product. The research issue of the paper was to determine whether mixing time along with the additional recirculation of the components influences the quality of the obtained compounds. The following hypothesis was put forward: the longer the mixing time, the fewer impurities in the product, so the better the quality of the compound. In case of the 8-ingredient compound feed the hypothesis can be adopted, but in case of the 12- and 14-ingredient compound feeds, the hypothesis must be rejected.

145 # 3408
An attempt to determine the influence of mixing time on the amount of impurities in compound feeds

The scope of the work included conducting research experiments for compound feeds with 8, 12 and 14 ingredients for various mixing times: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. The objective of the paper was to determine whether there are statistically significant differences between the amount of the received waste in the final product and the mixing time equal to 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. Moreover, the amount of impurities in the product depending on the kind of the compound feed and mixing time was analyzed. By means of the Kruskal-Wallis test, significant differences between the expected values of the percentage shares of impurities for mixing times of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes were proved and the varying pairs were given. Simultaneously, no significant differences between the distribution of probability distribution functions of the percentage shares of impurities in all compound feeds for 20 and 30 minutes of mixing were proved. Therefore, it is possible to shorten the mixing time from 20 to 30 minutes without decreasing the quality of the product. Moreover, a conclusion was made that the more ingredients are present in the compound, the bigger percentage share of waste is observed in the final product.

145 # 3409
Structure guidelines for the system using a heat pump for heating a garden facility

Sizes which are used at designing garden facilities with the use of heat pumps were discussed in the paper. Based on the analysis which was carried out, the scope of changes of effective coefficient of heat penetration through the facility cover and regression equation, which in a given scope allows calculation of its value, were determined. Based on the previously determined effectiveness of the installed heat pump (COP) also the required heating power of the heat pump was determined. This power depends on both environmental conditions (inside and outside the facility) as well as the percentage satisfaction of demand for the required heat power by the heat pump. The required number of 100 m boreholes, where ground vertical heat exchangers type 1xU and 2xU will be installed was also determined. Moreover, it was found that as a result of the use of standard relations in the developed nomogram, which describe energy issues in the heated facility, the developed relations have both cognitive as well as application values. Therefore, they may be used in all garden facilities, where the analysed cover was used and by generalization in these objects, where the value of heat penetration coefficient and the area of the facility are known.

145 # 3410
Analysis of thermal issues in a plastic tunnel during supply of heat from stone accumulator

The paper presents results of the analysis related to determination of the value of the coefficient of heat permission through the cover of a facility and thermal issues (temperature, heat amount) at discharging a stone accumulator. For calculation of this coefficient, relation including inside temperature change as a function of variable amount of heat transferred to the cover by radiation and heat transferred outside the facility by permission was used. Basing on the value of the calculated coefficient of heat permission the value of temperature inside the plastic tunnel in the process of supplying heat from a stone accumulator was determined. At the accepted decision values (temperature of surrounding is 8ºC, initial temperature in the tunnel at the level of 15ºC and the stream of pumped air amounting to 500 m3·h-1) and at the accepted cycle of dis-charge (9 hours), the scope of temperature changes inside (in comparison to the initial value) was within -0.2 to 2.4 K. Moreover, simulation calculations of the impact of the heat supplied from the accumulator, where initial temperature of the accumulator and stream of pumped air were included as variables, on the final values of the soil accumulator temperature, were carried out. Furthermore, quantity relations between final temperature of the accumulator and its room temperature and the stream of pumped air were determined. Non-linear estimation with the use of quasi-Newton method was applied for determination of this relation.

145 # 3411
Impact of investments in agricultural farms on the improvement of farmers' safety

Economic situation of Polish farms upon accession to the European Union is subject to systematic improvement. Due to availability of additional sources of funding, farmers have started implementation of the most modern technologies and machines in the agricultural production processes. Increase of the work safety level expressed with a decreasing number of accidents in the country is indirectly a positive effect of these changes. In order to carry out more precise analysis of this phenomenon, questionnaire research was performed on the randomly selected group of 180 agricultural farms in Łódzkie and Dolnośląskie Voivodeship. The questionnaire was composed of open and closed questions referring to the assessment of the safety level of farmers' work in relation to their investment activity as one of several factors which decrease the accident risk. According to the research, the main investment purpose of farmers was modernization of technical infrastructure and improvement of the safety level of labour. Tractors, sprayers and trailers prevailed among the most frequently purchased machines. In both farms, it was found out that the value of the implemented investments in 2006-2012 is inversely proportional to the number of accidents registered in agricultural farms. Suggested mathematical formulas developed based on the collected data prove that the decrease in the number of accidents in agricultural farms is considerably determined by the implemented investments.

145 # 3412
Possibilities of use of the pellets made of wheat and barley straw on the heat energy market

The paper presents possibilities of using wheat straw and barley straw as wastes of agricultural sector for energy purposes. Pellet was produced from the obtained biomass and physical and chemical properties in the form of heat of combustion, calorific value and ash content were determined. The study showed that important parameters in the process of pelleting are as follows: the length of chaff of the material and its moisture content level. For wheat straw and barley straw the optimal length of the chaff indicated was in the range of 3-8 mm. The optimum value of moisture content for this process should be 14%. Analysis of the heat of combustion and calorific value showed good energy properties of the researched biomass. For wheat straw the heat of combustion was 17.14 MJ kg -1 and the calorific value was 15.76 MJ kg -1, whereas, for barley straw, these values were respectively 16.40 MJ kg -1, while the calorific value was 15.00 MJ kg -1.

145 # 3413
Degree of sustainability of milk farms in the aspect of ecological assessment

Sustained farming may be assessed with the use of ecological, social and economic measure. Ecological assessment of the sustainability degree of farms was carried out with the use of sustainability of organic matter balance. Moreover, production organization in the researched farms was described. The analysis covered 15 farms of Śląskie voivodeship, which specialize in milk production. The selected facilities have the features of sustained farms concerning inter alia, the structure of the land use and sowing as well as livestock. The research was carried out in the form of a guided survey with farm owners. Data concerned 2012. In order to carry out comparative analysis, the facilities were divided into groups, assuming area of agricultural land as a division criterion. Therefore, 3 groups we distinguished: I of area up to 20.00 ha, II - from 20.01 to 50.00 ha and III of the acreage exceeding 50.00 ha of agricultural land. In all groups, excess of NPK components was reported and the index of sustainability of organic matter within the limits, occurred only in the smallest farms.

145 # 3414
An attempt to determine impact of tractor wheels track on irregularity of rye seeds sowing

Impact of coulters location on a coulter beam of a seeder towards the track of drive wheels of a tractor at the varied working speed of a sowing aggregate applied in the research (from 4 to 12 km·h -1) and variable amount of seeding (within the range 130 to 170 kg∙ha -1) on the longitudinal irregularity of rye seeds of Bojko cultivar sowing with mechanical seed drills equipped with hoe coulters. SZK 1.5 H-151 Kaszub and Amozone D7 seeder were used in the field research. Average irregularity of rye seeds sowing with seeder SZK 1.5H-151 Kaszub was slightly higher than the limit value set forth in PN-84/R-55050 and was 0.47. In case of the second seeder Amazone D7 value of the irregularity index of sowing was higher and amounted to 0.52. According to the analysis of variance, out of two applied sowing aggregates only in one, Amazone D7 seeder, a weak, but significant impact (a=0.05) of coulters location towards the track of tractor wheels, on longitudinal irregularity of rye seeds sowing was reported.

145 # 3415
Comparative analysis of longitudinal irregularity of wheat seeding with a universal seeder and cultivation-seeding aggregate

The paper presents the research results concerning the impact of sowing speed, changed every 2 km∙h-1 within the scope from 6 to 14 km∙h-1 on the longitudinal regularity of Fregatawinter wheat seeding at the variant use of two basic elements of cultivation-sowing aggregate (universal seeder SO43/3C - 1 "Poznaniak 6" and cultivation aggregate AS30 of AGRO-MASZ company: I variant - seeding after previous field preparation, II variant - seeding with simultaneous field preparation. Statistical analysis which was carried out proves that the total as well as the separate use of the cultivation and sowing unit from the aggregate (universal seeder SO43/3C-1 "Poznaniak 6" and cultivation aggregate AS30 of AGRO-MASZ company does not show any significant differences in the longitudinal irregularity of wheat seeding. Value of the longitudinal irregularity of the sowing index obtained in both variants of the experiment amounts to approx. 0.46 and does not differ from values presented in the literature for similar research circumstances.

145 # 3416
Total Productive Management System was applied for rationalization of heat economy in a brewery

The objective of the paper was to determine the increased heat consumption on the line of pouring beer into cans in 2010 in comparison to 2009 and reduction of the amount of heat consumption by this line to the level of 23.5 MJ∙hl-1 that is by 0.5 MJ∙hl-1. One of them were defaults of a tunnel pasteurizer, which caused the increase of heat consumption to the level of 18.2 MJ∙hl-1. Reduction of heat consumption by a pasteurizer by 2.2 MJ∙hl-1, that it to the level of 16 MJ∙hl-1 was assumed. For execution of the objective, the Total Productive Management system and Pareto analysis were applied. As a result of the changes, heat consumption by a pasteurizer was reduced to the assumed level which resulted in annual savings of production costs by approx. PLN 90 thousand and lowering a general index of heat consumption by a brewery by 0.8%.

145 # 3417
Assessment methods of granular and loose mixtures homogeneity

The paper presents the condition and science development trends concerning assessment methods of granular and loose mixtures homogeneity focusing in particular on agri-food industry. Homogeneity of mixtures determines the product value. Intensive development of production technology and the increasing quality requirements force to search for innovative solutions allowing a fast and precise way to assess the mixture quality, which minimizes the impact on the production process. In Poland, the analysis of the mixing degree of the key component based on determination of the chloride and carbonate content is a reference method of assessing homogeneity of fodder mixtures. Development of computer techniques allowed the use of innovative method of assessing homogeneity of granular mixtures based on the image analysis. The method, which was applied for assessment of homogeneity of fodder mixtures uses the analysis of the key component content the so called Mictrotracer®. Moreover, other methods, which are applied in laboratory and industrial conditions, characteristic for other industrial branches, were described in the paper.

145 # 3418
Computer visualization of the contact area of a tyre and the soggy soil

Nowadays, when the amount of information which is collected by research is huge, it is crucial to show this data in a manner that will facilitate their analysis and presentation. Due to constant information technologies development, they let us better visualize results of the research. The contact area of a tyre and the soggy soil is one of the issues where the data visualization is important for further analyses. The authors have considered the possibilities for transforming the abstract model into a material form and they have decided to use AutoCAD environment. Two separate applications with similar functionalities, by means of both Visual Basic for Applications and C#, part of the .NET platform, were developed in order to visualize the data collected from KONTAKT application which determine the parameters of the contact between a tyre and the soil and to perform a complex geometrical calculations. These quasi-doubled actions result from many implementation problems whilst using VBA. This was the basis for comparison of the used technologies, which along with description of functionality of the applications constitute the subject of this article

145 # 3419
The structure of geometry data in AutoCAD and its development possibilities

One should expect that newly created investments, including agricultural, will be provided with digital documentation. Therefore, it seems to be reasonable to ask a question, to what extent these geometric models can be the basis for the application for supporting the functioning of agricultural companies when geometric information is as important as the additional character data. An attempt to answer this question with simultaneous support of an appropriate example of application, which enriches the geometrical data forming a network model of sensors with additional character data, constitutes the content of this article.

145 # 3420
State of knowledge concerning modelling of anaerobic fermentation processes

Presently, many phenomena or processes taking place in the environment is described with the use of mathematical models, which help to understand a particular phenomena as well as enable verification of results of a given process without the necessity of carrying out sometimes very expensive research. In case of agricultural biogas plants, where numerous various processes take place (e.g. hydrolysis, methanogenesis, acetogenesis), many biogas calculators were produced and many mathematical models of a varied level of complexity of fermentation process perspectives were developed. The aim of the paper was to carry out thorough analysis of developed and known in the literature mathematical models on account of selection of parameters which determine methane production and the manner of assessing this production.

145 # 3421
Data preprocessing effect on the quality of short-term forecast of electricity demand

The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of different methods of pre-processing of the input data, such as moving average, exponential smoothing, filter 4253H on the quality of forecasts of hourly demand for electricity developed with regression methods. The objective of the study was carried out on the basis of own research carried out in the nN switchboard, located on the territory of a modern poultry slaughterhouse in the southern part of Małopolska region. The cluster analysis carried out with k-means and the EM method has shown that due to the similarity of the course of hourly demand for electricity division of weekdays into three days of cluster that is, working days, days preceding the days off, days off and construction of three independent models will be optimal. The total value of the actual amount of balancing energy ΔESR is the most important parameter of the models assessment in the practical applications. For majority of models constructed on the basis of the transformed variables, the decrease in the rate ΔESR towards models constructed based on exogenous not transformed variable was reported. The largest over 6% reduction in the value of the analysed indicator was obtained in model III for the input variable smoothed with 5th span Daniel window. Due to the lowest value of the total amount of balancing energy in practical applications, models built on the basis of a time series of hourly electricity consumption for the entire plant smoothed filter 4253H should be preferred.

145 # 3422
Impact of temperature on density and endurance of briquettes produced in a screw briquetting machine

Analysis of temperature impact in the compression chamber on density and mechanical endurance of briquettes produced of the selected plant raw materials was presented. Wheat, maize, rapeseed straw and meadow hay were used for production of briquettes. The researched raw materials were ground with the use of a drum straw-cutter driven with an electric motor of 7.5 kW capacity. Theoretical length of cutting raw materials was 20 mm. Analysis of moisture of raw materials and density and mechanical strength of pellets was carried out according to valid standards. Moisture of the researched raw materials was within 13-15%. A screw briquetting machine JW-08 with a heated compression chamber with an electric heater of 3 kW power. Density and mechanical strength of briquettes depended on the type of the used raw material and temperature in the compression chamber of a briquetting machine. The lowest density of briquettes was within 505 to 734 kg.m -3 for rye straw and the highest within 643 to 827 kg.m -3 for maize straw at the temperature in the compression chamber respectively 200 and 250ºC. Whereas, mechanical endurance of briquettes for the accepted temperatures in the compression chamber was within 52 to 74% for rape straw and within 69 to 94% for maize straw.

145 # 3423
Idea of accumulating heat waste from milk cooling

Discussion on storing heat waste from milk cooling with the use of heat accumulator using a phase transition was presented. It was assumed that the stored heat would then be next used for preparation of domestic hot water or in the central heating installation. The use of heat waste from technological processes influences decreases fuels consumption, which next influences the improvement of condition of the natural environment by decrease of CO2 emission to atmosphere. Heat waste from the process of milk cooling constitutes a significant source of thermal energy in the energy balance of farms, where diary cattle is bred. Performed calculations show that accumulated daily amount of heat from milk obtained from 100 cows is sufficient to heat approx. 1100 dm3 of water from 10 to 55ºC for domestic purpose or for heating approx. 1650 dm 3 of water from 10 to 40ºC, e.g. for floor heating which will satisfy top central heating demand of a house of usable area of approx. 120 m 2.

145 # 3424
Innovativeness in technologies and agricultural technique

The paper presents the review of modern meanings, definitions, terms and limitations of technological, technical and organizational innovations with indication of the role played by economic subjects in the innovation processes with particular consideration of preconditions and possibilities of introducing innovations in agriculture. Meaning evolutions of innovations as a basic element of economic development of the 21st century were raised. Technological and technical innovation terms in the micro and macro scale were discussed (global market); modern term of innovations as a process presenting a set of phenomena and events which create new technologies and products were also raised. Forms of operation, meaning and place of enterprises, research and development units and administration in innovative processes. Sources of knowledge of potential producers on the demand for innovations. Functioning of basic sciences, role and meaning of income (profit), monopolization and reasons for limiting competitiveness. Aspiration to change money into knowledge, knowledge into innovation and innovation into money. Characteristic features of innovations in agricultural technologies (creativity, rate, scope). Feedback between technologies and technical means. Limitations caused by dispersion and diversity of a potential market and income barriers, including participation of agriculture in GDP. Possible trends of development and changes of innovativeness. The paper includes materials available in the literature and results of own studies.

145 # 3425
Optimisation procedure of selection of the buffer bin cooperating with the heat pump

W pracy przedstawiono optymalizację doboru zbiornika buforowego dla pompy ciepła włączonej w układ grzejny obiektu szklarniowego. Badania oraz optymalizację przeprowadzono podczas pracy pompy współpracującej z trzema wybranymi pojemnościami zbiornika buforowego. Ustalenie wielkości zbiornika buforowego w systemie grunt – woda wymaga uwzględnienia wielu czynników zarówno od strony układu grzewczego szklarni, układu pobierania ciepła z gruntu, jak również samej pompy ciepła. Rozważano przypadek graniczny – zapotrzebowanie na ciepło, które jeszcze może dostarczyć pompa ciepła w systemie monowalentnym. Przyjęto, że nadrzędnym kryterium powinna być maksymalizacja efektywności COP, ale z równoczesnym zapewnieniem zdolności do generowania przez układ ustalonych, granicznych ilości ciepła. Uwzględniono różnice taryf cen energii elektrycznej, także sformułowano inne ograniczenia związane z doborem zbiornika buforowego. Wielkość zbiornika jest między innymi konsekwencją założeń dotyczących strategii eksploatacji dolnego źródła ciepła. Zagadnienie to w pracy rozszerzono. Stwierdzono, że wielkość zbiornika buforowego zależy od lokalnych własności źródła dolnego, które w skali kilku sezonów grzewczych nie ma stacjonarnego charakteru. Stąd zbiornik buforowy powinien posiadać możliwość wydzielania mniejszych objętości stosowanych w zależności od ilości energii pobieranej z jednego metra bieżącego dolnego źródła ciepła. Następnie korzystając z symulacji komputerowych, wykazano, że istnieją uzasadnione ograniczenia dla stosowania zbiorników zbyt małych lub zbyt dużych. W wytypowanym przedziale należy poszukiwać optymalnego zbiornika na drodze doświadczalnej, z uwagi na udział zbyt wielu zmiennych zmniejszających precyzję drogi obliczeniowej.

145 # 3426
The use of thermovision in the study of thermal distribution within the plastic tunnels equipped with heat accumulators

The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of applying thermovision as a method for measuring the temperature of crops under cover. The thermal imaging methods allowed demonstration of temperature differences between the investigated crop objects. They also enabled quick determination of the temperature gradient in plastic tunnels without a need for installation of a large number of standard temperature sensors. Moreover, the thermographic method allowed the observation of the phenomenon of convectional heat transfer from the bed of the stone accumulator into the tunnel. The results suggest that thermography is a very useful technique for recording thermal conditions of crops under cover.

145 # 3427
Heat of combustion of straw and wastes from wheat spelt fertilized with varied doses of potassium

The objective of the research was to determine and compare the value of the heat of combustion of straw and waste from wheat spelt at varied moisture of the researched material and potassium fertilization. The research was conducted by means of the calorimeter pursuant to the applicable standard PN-EN ISO 9831:2005. The increased potassium fertilization caused the decrease of the heat of combustion value of both straw and waste at all applied moisture variants. The highest values of the heat of combustion were registered for both straw and waste of 3.2% moisture at a single dose of potassium amounting to 75 kg∙ha -1.

145 # 3428
Distribution of surface pressure of apples at impact loading

Results of measurements of surface pressure of Ligol apples with the use of Tekscan system in impact loading conditions were presented. Contour lines and distribution of pressure in two mutually perpendicular directions for two variants of loading differing with the energy of apple collision with the area of resistance were determined. Average values measured during the test were determined and statistical analysis was carried out for them. It was determined that the growth of collision energy influences the value and distribution of maximum pressures in the area of the apple contact with the area of resistance. It was proved that in the central contact zone, plastic deformations of the apple tissue occurred as a result of its damage appearing with low values of surface pressure. Maximum values of surface pressure are in the border zone of the contact area.

145 # 3429
Analysis of profitability of maize production desig-nated for silage as a substrate for a biogas plant

Profitability of maize cultivation for silage designated for an agricultural biogas plant was analysed. Research was carried out in the farm „ Rolfarm” Sp. Z O.O. located in the south-west part of Dolnośląskie Voivodeship. A farm, which carries out only plant production, was managing on the area of ca. 1000 ha of land out of which 793 ha were arable lands. In the researched season 2009-2010, maize designated for biogas was cultivated in the area of 100.31 ha which constitutes approx. 12% of share in sowing of agricultural lands. When selling silage for the outside recipient (Germany) in the researched period, the income from cultivation of 1 ha of maize was PLN 6,401.40, the cost of PLN 2,511.97 and profit for maize cultivation for silage was 3,889.43 PLN·ha-1, which gave the profitability index at the level of 2.54. However, the highest income which would be provided by the maize cultivation designated for grain, where for current prizes of purchase and the accepted average crop at the level of 7.5 t∙ha-1 the profit would be 4,657.85 PLN∙ha-1.

145 # 3430
Heat of combustion of barley straw cultivated in conditions of a variable level of potassium fertilization

The objective of the research was to determine and compare values of the heat of combustion of barley straw from cultivation at two levels of potassium fertilization. The research were conducted using a calorimeter pursuant to the applicable standard PN-EN ISO 9831:2005. Based on the obtained results it was determined that moisture of barley straw and a dose of potassium used at the cultivation influenced the value of the heat of combustion of barley straw. At the moisture of 3.2 and 11.7% straw of barley which was fertilized with potassium with the dose of 150 kg∙ha -1 was characterized by a higher value of the heat of combustion, in comparison to the the second variant of fertilization with this component, which amounted to respectively 18.98 and 18.02 MJ∙kg -1. In case of barley, which was fertilized with a half lower dose of potassium, the heat of combustion of its straw, at the moisture of 3.2% was 18.3 MJ∙kg -1 and 17.51MJ∙kg -1 when the straw was of 11.7% moisture.

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