The research allowed to determine the impact of pocket pits depth, the index of cylinder static loading with the mixture, and chute working edge setting angle on buckwheat nuts yield, release efficiency for corn seeds (wheat, rye, barley and oat), and mixture separation efficiency. It has been observed that using a trieur with pocket pits allows to improve cleaned product purity, however not to the extent sufficient to qualify it as a gluten-free product.
Measures of critical speed of lifting, thickness, width, length, sliding friction angle and mass were taken. Moreover, spherical coefficient of black alder seeds collected from three seed tree stands of different age was determined. The analysis of variance with single classification, correlation and regression of one variable and many variables was used for description and analysis.
The study presents basic dimensions (length, width and thickness) as well as angles of static friction on the selected construction surfaces (steel, wood, neralit 581, gum with hard and soft carcase) of white and black mustard seeds polluted with echinochloa. Dependency equations between the properties are characterised with a quite low percentage of the explained variability.
Divisibility indexes of white mustard seeds mixture, black mustard seeds and echinochloa were determined according to basic dimensions (length, width and thickness) as well as angles of outer friction on selected construction surfaces (steel, wood, neralit 581, gum with hard and soft carcase). It was determined that the scopes of changes of the analysed properties overlap, what requires application of several dividing operations. Four different options of the course of seed mixture technological cleaning process were presented.
Two functional solutions of the sowing unit of a seeder were investigated: I – a sowing unit along with a telescopic delivery tube and II – a pin sowing unit with a telescopic delivery tube with additional levelling shaft of the seed stream of Reguline system and the sowing speed and the amount of sowing wheat seeds of Tonacja variety. It was found that the levelling shaft of the seed stream significantly influences the improvement of the unevenness index of sowing seeds and additionally is advantageous because the value of this index is not affected by the operational speed of the aggre-gate and the amount of sowing in the scope accepted in the research. The value of the unevenness index of sowing after using the levelling shaft of the seed stream decreased of 8% – from the value of 0.48 to the value of 0.44.
3D laser scanner application allows non-contact measurement and mapping of surfaces and calculation of the factors characterizing geometric features. An additional benefit of using non-contact measurement of geometry using the 3D scanner is the ability to measure the products of fine texture and sensitive to external mechanical damage. The aim of this paper was to determine the basic geometric features of grain bread rolls, the measurements of surface area and volume and determine its basic physical properties - mass and density. The average surface area calculated on the basis of a digital model in case when the scanned model of a bread roll had holes in its surface, and in case when the holes were filled in the model, did not differ significantly. Significant differences occurred when the surface area and volume of bread rolls was calculated from the formulas. The aspect ratios for the series of bread rolls were estimated.
Influence of the operational speed of the seed aggregate (within 4 to 12 km·h -1) and location of coulters towards the track of drive wheels of a tractor on irregularity of the depth of sowing rye seeds of Bojko variety with mechanical seed drills with hoe coulters. SZK 1.5 H-151 Kaszub and Amozone D7 seeder were used in the field research. The analysis of variance proves that both the operational speed of the aggregate as well as the location of coulters towards drive wheels of a tractor significantly influence the depth of sowing of rye seeds with both seeders. Average depth of sowing rye seeds with Amazone D7 seeder with spring regulation of coulters pressure on soil was slightly lower than the set value (30mm) and was 28.4 mm, in case of the second seeder SZK 1.5H-151 Kaszub with regulation of coulters pressure with sinkers, the average depth of sowing was 38.7 mm. The obtained results prove a little usefulness of the regulation of the sowing depth in seed drills with sinkers placed on coulter levels.
Results of the research concerning influence of sowing density and operational speed of a pneumatic precision sieve Kongskilde Demeter Variosem VM4 on the quality of sowing of corn seeds of middle-early variety „Kosmo” 230. Field research was carried out in 2011 on the soil of a weak rye complex on 1.4 ha plot. Precision of distribution of corn in rows was determined after plant germination, setting percentage share of single, double seeding and passes based on the measured distances between plants on measurement lengths of 10 m length in three repeats located along rows for each of four seeding sections of a seeder. ISO 7256/1 standard used in the research of precise seeders was used for preparing results of measurements. The analysis of variance of the obtained results proved that from among the accepted independent variables, both independent variables i.e. density of seeding and operational speed of a seeder have significant impact (α = 0,05) on percentage share of single and double seeding and passes of corn seeds of „Kosmo” 230 variety at a constant width of interrows - 0.75 m. The most advantageous share of single corn seeds sowing in the re-searched distance classes in a row occurred at sowing density of 65 thousand seeds·ha -1. Along with the increase of sowing density, within the researched scope, percentage share of single sowing decreased and the quality of sowing worsened. In case of the second independent variable (sowing speed) the most advantageous share of single sowing occurred at the working speed of a seeder within the range 6 to 12 km·h -1.
Impact of coulters location on a coulter beam of a seeder towards the track of drive wheels of a tractor at the varied working speed of a sowing aggregate applied in the research (from 4 to 12 km·h -1) and variable amount of seeding (within the range 130 to 170 kg∙ha -1) on the longitudinal irregularity of rye seeds of Bojko cultivar sowing with mechanical seed drills equipped with hoe coulters. SZK 1.5 H-151 Kaszub and Amozone D7 seeder were used in the field research. Average irregularity of rye seeds sowing with seeder SZK 1.5H-151 Kaszub was slightly higher than the limit value set forth in PN-84/R-55050 and was 0.47. In case of the second seeder Amazone D7 value of the irregularity index of sowing was higher and amounted to 0.52. According to the analysis of variance, out of two applied sowing aggregates only in one, Amazone D7 seeder, a weak, but significant impact (a=0.05) of coulters location towards the track of tractor wheels, on longitudinal irregularity of rye seeds sowing was reported.
The paper presents the research results concerning the impact of working speed, changed every 2 km∙h-1 within the scope from 6 to 14 km∙h-1 on the irregularity of seeding depth of Fregata winter wheat at the variant use of two basic elements of cultivation-sowing aggregate (universal seeder SO43/3C - 1 "Poznaniak 6" and cultivation aggregate AS30 of AGRO-MASZ company). In the I variant - cultivation-sowing treatment was carried out in two separate stages: soil cultivation and wheat seeding. Whereas in the II variant - soil cultivation treatment and seeding was carried out simultaneously. The statistical analysis which was carried out (analysis of variance) shows that working speed of sowing and cultivation-sowing aggregates has significant impact (α=0.05) on the depth of seeding wheat carried out in two variants (combined - I variant and separate - II variant), the application of the cultivation and seeding unit. Average values of sowing depth, obtained in both variants of the experiment was by approx. 15 and 6 % (respectively variant I and II) higher than the set sowing depth (3 cm) and was respectively 3.44 and 3.19 cm.
Critical velocity of transportation, basic dimensions (length, width and thickness) as well as the mass of parsnip seeds was determined. Based on the measurements which were carried out, a geometrical hydraulic diameter, proportion index, spherical index and unit mass were calculated. A test of seeds germination was carried out by checking out the effects every 12 hours and then appropriate value of the germination time index was assumed to each seed. The above features and indexes were compared with the use of t test for independent tests and the correlation analysis. It was stated that germinated and non-germinated seeds differ statistically significantly only on account of their thickness. Some improvement of the germination ability of the seed material may be obtained by separating lighter seeds therefrom. In the tested seed material, obtaining 65% of germination ability was related to losses of seeds, which correctly produce sprouts at the level of approx 27%.
Basic dimensions (length, width and thickness), critical velocity of transporting seeds, sliding friction angle and the mass of pumpkin seeds, obtained from four fruit of various mass were determined. Based on the measurements, volume and thickness of each seed and its spherical index were calculated. Interdependence between the tested properties and indexes was evaluated based on the test for independent samples, analyses of variance, correlation and regression. It was found that the seeds mass is the most variable property and their length is the least variable. Empty and full pumpkin seeds should be separated with a pneumatic separator, where a vertical air stream of velocity approx. 5 m•s-1 is a separating element. Length and mass of seeds may be used at separation of seed material into quality fractions. As a result of separating the smallest seed fraction, a seed material may be obtained in which after the process of removing the fruit-seed coat, 95% of ripe seeds will be available.
To the recording of seeds losses at rape desiccation ground spraying aggregate viscous artifical bases were used, which were placed in region between rows of rape.Applied dissolution let to qualify transvere distribution of local seeds losses and may be used to delimitation of its formation sources.
Distribution and level of seeds losses during rape desiccation and caused by self-shattering were examined. To recording of shattered and shattering seeds sticky base was used. It has been stated that seeds losses at rape desiccation with Avans preparation are lower than with Reglone preparation.
The paper presents figures and parameters of two types of share distributions - in number of seeds and in mass - the three basic dimensions of buckwheat seed and "świrzepa" radish hulls. It was stated that the use of improper type of distribution to evaluate of coefficients of mixture distributive should be cause of significant calculation mistakes.
Artificial viscous media were used to register horizontal seed losses. These media were laid between rows in the canopy, covering an area wider than working width of the combine harvester. Local and total losses of rape seeds were assessed at two methods of preharvest preparation of the plantation.
The effect of two kinds of preparations Awans Premium 360 SL and Reglone 200SL on rape seeds during desiccation as well as at subsequent seeds ripening and harvesting was stated. Desiccation operations were conducted on typical aggregate and equipped with distributors of field, screen and shields.
The methodology and results of measurements of thickness, width and length as well as mass of buckwheat and wild radish seeds in work were introduced. Between received features, the correlation and mathematical relationships were qualified. The obtained equations can be used to building of mathematical models of buckwheat and wild radish segments seeds as well as to the mathematical modelling of cleaning processes.
The effects of two desiccants (Avans Premium 360SL and Reglone SL) application on the weight of 1000 seeds and on the losses of rape seeds during desiccation treatments and in the period of post-desiccation ripening and harvest, were studied. The results showed that both, the losses of rape seeds and the weight of 1000 seeds in harvested yield were significantly affected by the kinds of applied desiccants.