Relations between technical equipment and human labour inputs were studied for selected family farms of Wojnicz rural district in Tarnów province. The objects examined by the inquiry were characterized in respect of labour consumption for assumed acreage intervals. Next, the statistical relationships were determined by using the STATISTICA v.5.0 programme. Exemplary diagrams of liner regression inserted in the paper present the influence of independent variables such as tractor power and average annual tractor utilization on the total labour inputs on the farms. On the basis of obtained results it was stated that increasing level of equipment with the technical means of production reduced labour inputs on the farms. However, the absolute quantity of consumed labour depended mostly on the labour inputs on animal production.
The effects of land use management and agricultural crop structures on the equipment of family farms with the technical means were presented on an example of Wojnicz rural district in Tarnów province. The examined farms were characterized in respect of land utilization structure, agricultural crop structure and the equipment with technical means of production. Next, the statistical relationships were determined by use of STATISTICA v.5.0 programme. Exemplary diagrams of linear regression inserted in the paper, present the influence of independent variables such as agricultural land, arable land cereal crop acreage on the structure and equipment of machinery stock on the farms. On the ground of obtained results it was stated that the crop structure and – as a result – the direction of farms production are the fundamental criteria for providing equipment with technical production means for a farm.
Paper presented the results of regional studies aimed at evaluating - on the basis of farmers' opinion - an existing market of transport services in agriculture. The studies showed that the main reason of using transport services is the lack of own transport means and/or tractive force, while the reason of service rendering - the neighbour's assistance and an additional income. However, the farmers generally do not use the transport services as they are self - sufficient and the services are too expensive, while they do not render the services because no adequate transport means are available. According to the farmers' opinion, the transport services in agriculture ought to be realized by specialistic firms in the future.
The paper presents current level and structure of operating costs for storage buildings and structures in enterprises characterised by various farm production types, as well as store functioning efficiency evaluation indexes. It was proved that highest operating costs for storage buildings and structures occurred in mixed production (vegetable and animal) farms – PLN 0.99 thousand·ha-1 of farmland, and lowest - in farms specialised in field crops – PLN 0.27 thousand·ha
Storage potential and its use in farms with various types of agricultural production are presented. The greatest storage potential was found for the group D objects – 49.3 m2·ha-1, the lowest storage potential was noted for the group A objects – 11.7 m2·ha-1. The degree of using the storage area ranged from 65.3% (group B) to 88.6% (group A). The greatest part of the storage area was occupied by agricultural machines and equipment – 33.8%, the smallest part was occupied by means of production – 18.2%. The greatest storage area management index was noted for the group A farms – 1.09 t·m-2, and the lowest index was found for the group E farms – 0.28 t·m-2.
The paper presents the level and structure of costs incurred on teleinformation processes in households with various types of agricultural production. The costs of teleinformation processes, depending on the type of production, ranged from 114.3 to 1151.8 zlotys•ha-1 of agricultural land. In the structure of costs, in all the household groups, costs of outside services prevailed (39.0–70.6%).
The paper presents the level and structure of packaging management costs in farms characterized by different types of agricultural production. The research was carried out in Małopolskie Voivodeship for the sample of 50 farms with various agricultural production types. Completed analysis of the research results indicate that highest packaging management costs were observed in vegetable growing farms (871.2 PLN•ha-1 of farmland), and lowest - in farms specialised in field crops (30.1 PLN•ha-1 of farmland). As regards costs structure, packaging acquisition costs had highest share in farms belonging to groups B, C, and D, while packaging storage costs had highest share in groups A and E.
The following elements are discussed: main sources of packaging waste, ways of packaging storage and utilisation and production unitisation level. 30 farms were examined. It has been found that the main source of packaging is living and production activity, and its average mass reaches about 0.9 t⋅ha-1. The most common way of utilization was throwing the waste into collective containers. The highest level of unitisation in the examined farms was observed in farms sized 5-10 ha – 84.2%, and the lowest in farms under 5 ha – 71.2%.
The paper presents the level and structure of logistic infrastructure costs and the share of these costs in total production costs, direct surplus and commodity production value. Moreover, the research allowed to determine activity indexes for logistics resources, logistic infrastructure utilization efficiency, and logistic investment potential. Among other things it has been found that, depending on farm type, logistic infrastructure costs constitute 36.4% - 69.4% of total production costs.
The paper makes an effort to assess introduction of scientific progress in agriculture, dividing it into its individual categories. Authors point out the relationship between land productivity and biological and chemical progress, and the impact of technological progress on labour productivity. By showing positive effects of introduced progress to modernisation of agriculture, they proved existing distance between the agriculture in Poland and selected EU countries. Finally, they emphasized barriers and threats as consequences of the introduced progress.
The paper presents a brief assessment of the „Inżynieria Rolnicza” [„Agricultural Engineering”] magazine over the years 1997-2008, and the structure and functionality of the publication active site. Moreover, the work presents statistics system – Google Analytics – allowing to acquire information concerning the attractiveness of the site in the Internet, and data about users visiting the site, most frequently demanded key words and articles, as well as locations, from which the site is displayed.
The purpose of the work was to get to know the level of farmers’ knowledge on the main reasons for making and keeping reserves, and their knowledge on cost-making factors involved in making and keeping reserves. In the opinion of respondents, the following were main reasons for keeping reserves: reducing the risk of running out of stock, protection against price changes, and cyclical nature of agricultural production. The most cost-consuming factors were: storage infrastructure depreciation and insurance coverage.
The study presents the indices of technical progress in selected technologies cultivation of cereals and fodder crops of root and defines the extent to which transport works act on progress. The studies were performed in 30 farms located in the area of Małopolska. The technological progress was expressed in the economical and power aspect. Whereas the share of transport works on achieved progress was given in percentage value. Studies have shown that transport works have a significant impact on technological progress in selected technologies in agricultural production.
The work presents methodical aspects of determination of scientific and technical progress in macro- and microeconomic tests Particular stages of tests were characterised in the context of the research problem being discussed, with particular focus on methodological aspects. Primary economic and agricultural indexes were determined with regard to: soil productivity, labour productivity, activity of logistic resources, efficiency of use of the logistic infrastructure and logistic investment.
The technical equipment of 30 farms and the sale and purchase of mechanisation services in these farms were compared. Opportunities were presented for the development of technical, advisory and IT production services that are provided for adequately equipped medium-sized and large farms. The average area of tested farms was approx. 32 ha of arable land.
The work presents main criteria applied in selected farms to choose suppliers of production means. The survey carried out at 50 farms - divided into five groups according to production type - provided grounds to assess factors affecting supplier’s selection. It has been found that in all groups of enterprises, goods price and prompt delivery are most important among all proposed factors.
The paper presents the level, structure and costs of stock gathering and keeping in farms depending on production area size and reasons for keeping stock in the opinion of polled farmers. Average stock level in the examined farms was 14.9 t·ha-1, and was growing along with the increasing production area. High stock level is reflected in its keeping and gathering costs, which ranged between 49 and 155.2 PLN·t-1 of stored goods. The main reason for keeping stock in the examined objects was to ensure protection against consequences of natural disasters, and to reduce stock-out risk.
The work describes relationships between different scientific progress categories and selected economic and agricultural characteristics in micro- and macro-scale. It has been observed that progress in biology and chemistry results in increasing soil productivity, and technological progress allows to increase productivity of work. However, there are also negative consequences of progress introduced in ecological and social spheres.
The size of the goods production and technical resources of 30 well-equipped, middle- and large-size farms producing goods was analyzed. The work presents the ranking of needs, the frequency structure of purchasing production services and their value, taking veterinary, zoohygiene, technical, supply, sale, advisory and IT services into consideration.
On an example of 100 organic farms the paper presents their technical means of production resources. The following were identified among the technical means of production: tractors, cultivation aggregates, machinery for organic fertilization, plant tending, sowing, planting and harvesting, and for livestock production. Tractor resources were on the level of 1.53 pcs∙farm-1, whereas in the group of largest farms (more than 20 ha AL) –2.40 pcs∙farm-1. Studied farms were best equipped with cultivation machinery and tools but poorly in cereal and root crops harvesters.
The work presents the area and land use structure, as well as the cropping area and structure. Presented were also the size and structure of herd divided into animal groups. The livestock density was calculated by referring a livestock unit (LU) to arable area. Investigated were 100 organic farms divided into area groups, i.e. of less than 5 ha, from 5.01 to 10.00 ha, from 10.01 to 20.00 ha and more than 20 ha. Conducted statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between agricultural land area and grassland area, and between arable lands area and cattle herd size.
The paper presents the means of transport and loader resources on organic farms both in qualitative and quantitative approach. The scope of the work comprises 100 organic farms situated in southern Poland in 26 districts (gminas) of the gorlicki, krakowski, miechowski, nowosądecki, olkuski, proszowicki and wielicki counties (poviats). Among others it was observed that the farm resources considering both the quantity and quality of the means of transport is low and greatly differs from the traditional farms. On organic farms, there is on average 0.86 means of transport with average load capacity 2.06 t per one tractor. Agricultural trailers and tractor wagons prevailed in the structure of studied means. Also loader and loading devices quantities are very low.
The work presents a level and a structure of stocks costs in relation to distance to supply markets. The research was carried out in 30 randomly selected farms in the south region of Poland. It was stated among others that an average index of stocks costs amounted to 87.2 PLN·t-1 of the stored goods and it decreased along with the increase of the distance from farms to supply markets from 101.0 PLN to 49.1 PLN. The costs of storing constituted 5.4-26.3% and the costs of maintenance were within the range of 74.7-94.6%. Limitation of stock depletion risk (40-69.2%) as well as protection against natural disaster were the main reasons of keeping stocks (42,9-70).
The work study presents the size and the structure of raw-materials and goods flow in agricultural farms with regard to the production trend. The assumed aim was carried out based on research conducted in 80 farms of Southern Poland. The facilities covered by the research were divided into four groups: one-trend farms - plant and animal production oriented, two-trend farms and mixed - trend farms. As a result of the research which was carried out, the size and the structure of raw materials and goods flows was assessed within main areas of logistics: supply and distribution. Forming models of raw materials and goods flow in the researched farms, which illustrate the size and the structure of goods mass flow, was the final effect of the research.
The influence of the size of the power installed in technical means in ecological farms of Małopolska region on the global size of plant production. The production size as well as the power installed in tractors was referred to a farm (JZfarm -1; kWfarm -1) and an area unit of production (JZha -1 UR; kWha -1 UR). In order to carry out a verbal analysis, the researched objects were divided into 8 area groups. In case of power, out of a total number of tractors operating in farms, three types of the most frequently occurring tractors were selected. The statistical analysis, which was carried out proved significant correlation relations between the size of the power installed in agricultural farms (calculated per area on 1 ha of arable lands) and the plant production size also referred to an area unit. The sum of the power installed in tractors in the researched farms has also a statistically significant impact on a unitary production size.
The main objective of the paper was an assessment of mutual relations between the production size and the structure expressed in JZ·farm. -1 and JZ·ha -1 and equipping with farm tractors and mobile transport means. The number of particular mobile means per a farm and 1 ha of arable land was assumed as independent variables. The research proves that on average 541.9 JZ of plant production and 214.0 JZ of animal production is for one farm. It is respectively 47.9 and 19.3 JZ per 1 ha of arable lands. Thus, the size of plant production is over 2.5 times higher. On average, per one ecological farm there was 1.58 of a farm tractor and a standard deviation was 0.89 item·farm. -1. It was 0.27 item per 1 ha of arable lands. Equipping the selected ecological farms with trucks and delivery trucks shall be assessed as weak. Per one l farm there was only 0.11 item on average and a standard deviation was 0.35 item. The statistical analysis, which was carried out proved significant correlation and regression relations between the size of the total production in a farm and the number of farms in items both per a farm as well as per 1 ha of arable lands, as well as the number of tractors along with the remaining mobile transport means per a farm and per 1 ha of arable lands.
The paper describes a storing infrastructure, its use and the present replacement value with regard to the simplification degree and the production orientation. The highest storing potential was noted in farms of III° simplification degree (35.9 m 2 ·ha -1) and in two-orientation farms (36.8 m 2 ·ha -1), while the lowest in objects of V° simplification degree (24.7 m 2 ·ha -1) and of the mixed production (26.4 m 2 ·ha -1). The degree of using the storing area was on the level of 54.3-70.2% depending on the simplification degree of production and 55.5-68.4% depending on the production orientation. The highest replacement value of storing buildings and facilities was reported in farms of V°simplification degree (18.18 thousand. PLN·ha -1 AL) and in two-orientation farms (19.9 thousand.PLN·ha -1 AL). Basing on experiences in managing storing infrastructure of companies from outside the agricultural branch, where the use of modern methods of managing brought notable economical effects, varied patterns should be used and applied in farms.
Two types of sprayers: standard XR110 03 and ejector ID 120 03 were used in the research. Mass of 1000 seeds, their energy and germination ability were determined in seeds samples collected after flail, second drying and purifying. Germination energy was determined after 7 days, while germination ability after 10 days at Jacobsen germination apparatus according to PN-79/R-65950 standard. On the basis of the obtained results, slightly higher values of the obtained parameters of standard sprayers were reported. However, differences were statistically insignificant (α=0.05). One may assume that in case of fodder grass cultivated for seeds, better quality of crop is obtained at a lower spectrum of drops for a sprayed working liquid.
Potatoes play a crucial role in ensuring nutrition for the population. In Slovakia, they are almost as important as bread. It is significant to obtain the lowest possible losses and damage at cultivation as well as at harvest. This can be achieved only by a modern, but also a high-performance technique and cultivation technology in order to harvest in time and without high losses. The use of proper harvesting technology is clearly reflected in the quality and consequently in the sale price of the product.
The paper presents the size and structure of raw materials and commodities flow in agricultural farms from the aspect of production simplification. The assumed aim was carried out based on the research conducted in 80 farms of Southern Poland. Facilities for research were divided according to a simplification degree. The highest I°degree of simplification includes only one group of plants. Subsequent degrees of simplification respond to an increasing number of plants, since the number of cultivated groups of technological plants decides on the simplification degree. As a result of the research which was carried out, the size and structure of raw materials and goods flows was assessed within 3 main areas of logistics - supply, production and distribution. The final effect of the research was development of raw materials and commodities flow in the researched groups of farms.
The paper presents the research results in one hundred ecological farms which hold a certificate, located in Southern Poland. The objective of the paper was to assess potential of use of renewable energy sources and plans for future on the example of the selected ecological farms. The assessment herein was carried out based on the opinion of the owners of the researched farms. As much as 93% of respondents claimed that they are interested in this issue, and 72% expressed their opinion that they plan to use renewable energy sources in future, especially if the country will grant additional subsidies. In the farmers'opinions solar collectors are the most popular renewable energy carriers, which are considered the most promising. 56% of the respondents agreed that this is the best solution. While 8% of the respondents expressed their interest in using both, a solar collector as well as a heat pump and 4% was for using a solar collector and a wind power station. The fact that 57% of respondents plan to develop their farm and plan future investments is very advantageous (inter alia related to the use of RES in their farms).
Improvement of the quality of the produced goods, which becomes more significant nowadays, as well as the increase of production is possible through modernisation of farms. It is especially significant in ecological farming which is one of the fastest developing branches of agriculture in the world. Therefore, the aim of the paper was to determine the level of technical equipment including a machinery park and farm buildings and the size of commodity production in farms. 83 ecological farms, where animal production was carried out were accepted for analyses – out of 100 farms included in the research project. Farms we-re located on the territory of the south Poland. The research was carried out in the form of a guided survey with farm owners. Data concerned 2011. In order to carry out comparable analyses, the facilities were divided into groups, assuming at least 60% of the population sha-re of the particular utility group of animals, expressed in LSU in the total number of live-stock, as a division criterion. The biggest number of technical means with reference to 1 ha of arable land was reported in poultry farms and the lowest number in farms specialising in horse breeding. Simultaneously, the highest commodity production amounting to 2.25 and 4.55 in t·ha-1 was reported in those two groups of farms. The statistical analysis, which was carried out, the aim of which was to find a relation between commodity production and technical equipment of farms in particular groups, proved to be insignificant.
The objective of the paper was to describe waste management, especially to present the basic sources of obtaining packages by agricultural producers and methods of waste disposal. 80 agricultural farms from the southern Poland were covered by the research. The analysis was carried out in farms divided according to the degree of production simplification - 5 groups of simplification were distinguished depending on the number of groups of cultivated plants which are technologically homogeneous. It was determined that the weight of the stored waste is within 0.6-1.1t∙ha-1 AL depending on the degree of simplification and the level of segregation of packagings was at the average 58.8%. In the farm owners\\\' opinion, the social activity and the service activity as well as the supply processes are the main source of waste including packaging waste.
The objective of the paper was to determine the present state of equipment and the use of transport means depending on the production trend. The research proved that the transport means equipment was very diverse in relation to the trend. Two-trend objects had the best equipment on account of quantity while mixed farms were the worst. Annual use of farms was within 619.9 to 1252.5 hours, passenger cars from 41.3 to 207.0 hours. Only one-trend animal farms had delivery trucks and trucks. Each investigated group possessed loading devices and means, while engine power fork trucks occurred only in one-trend plant farms. However, their use was very low.
The purpose of this paper was to assess the labour efficiency in agriculture against the background of the obtained plant production in agricultural farms. First, labour inputs and raw materials and materials inputs were assessed; size of the global agricultural production in the investigated farms was also determined. It was indispensable for calculation of the net production and then of labour efficiency. The scope of work covered research in 30 farms located on the territory of Miechów commune, Małopolskie Voivodeship. Selection of farms was intentional- objects were only plant production occurred. The highest level of total agricultural production (plant) was characteristic for vegetable production. Unitary global production in this case was 8244.3 PLN·ha -1. For comparison grains production was 2295.2 PLN·ha -1 of grains and production of root crops was 6140.3 PLN·ha -1. The assessed total labour efficiency was 11 PLN·man hour-1. The highest was for farms from the 3 rd area group (where vegetables cultivation prevails). In this case PLN 46.8 was for one man hour. The second group of objects (from 5 to 10 ha) obtained a positive efficiency index, however its value was only 4.7 PLN·man hour -1. A very disadvantageous phenomena was reported in case of the smallest farms of 5 ha area – the evaluated index was valued under zero and was -26.5 PLN·man hour -1. In these farms, overinvesting in the machinery park is noticeable, which utilized to a low extent influences high indirect costs related to inter alia amortization of the fixed means.
The article presents in the synthetic manner the achievements of 20 years of the winter scientific school “Scientific, Technical and Organizational Progress in Agriculcture”. Basic terms concerning organization of scientific meetings were explained and then the origin of organization of schools in agricultural engineering, their participants and popularization activity was presented. Finally, impact of the Zakopane school on the intellectual development of its participants and their professional career was presented.
The objective of the paper was to determine the efficiency of transport means on the example of the selected farms of the southern Poland. Operation efficiency of means was expressed through performance of transports and the amount of work time and labour inputs. The research covered 9 farms located in Małopolska region. Based on the analysis of work time structure and labour inputs and performance of transport means operation, one may clearly state that the work efficiency of the selected means for the transport of the analysed load is very low. The highest labour inputs were incurred for the transport of vegetables with a tractor with a tractor wagon and the lowest for transport of fertilizers with a tractor with a trailer. The set composed of a tractor and two trailers achieved the highest performance among the analysed means through high loading capacity and a high index of load capacity use.
The research was carried out in 2011-2013 in a farm producing meadow grass silage in the form of cylindrical bales. The objective of the research was to determine the quality and value of the nutrititional values of silage depending on drying ensiled meadow grass influenced by the use of a tine-type conditioner and a roller mill. Three variants of mowing were assumed: without conditioner, with a tine-type conditioner and with a roller mill. A basic chemical composition was marked in silage with a standard method and the content of organic acids with the use of gas chromatograph. Nutritional value of silage was assessed in Flieg-Zimmer scale. It was found out that mowing green forage with the use of a conditioner favourably influences the quality of silage. Silage obtained from green forage, which was mowed with the use of a tine-type conditioner had the highest content of dry mass (415.7 g∙kg -1), a slightly lower content of dry mass was reported upon the use of a roller mill (365.6 g∙kg -1), and the lowest for green forage silage mowed without a conditioner (274.2 g∙kg -1). Appropriate degree of drying was an essential element influencing the course of the ensilaging process and the silage quality.
The objective of the paper was to present model solutions of distribution logistics with regard to organic products in organic farms. Moreover, size and production structure, as well as participation and structure of commodity production divided into departments was defined. The scope of the paper covered the research in 50 organic farms located in the south of Poland. The study was carried out within the development subsidy No NR 12-0165-10 "Innovative impact of technology and IT support of management on production efficiency in organic farms". Total commodity production in the investigated farms was 6009.73 PLNha-1 which constituted at the average 69.3% of global production. In the structure of plant commodity production, vegetables, grain seeds and fruit constitute a considerable part and in the animal production it was milk and eggs. It was found out that decisions within the scope of model solutions of distribution of organic products mainly concern the selection of proper distribution channels, organization of physical distribution (marketing logistic) and localization of sale points. Four models of organic products distribution were suggested.
The objective of the paper was to determine operating costs of the machinery park in organic farms. Moreover, the level of farms equipment with farm machines and devices was determined and the use of their manufacturing capacities was assessed. The scope of the study covered the research in 50 certified organic farms located in the south Poland in Małopolskie, Podkarpackie and Świętokrzyskie voivodeships. The study was carried out within the development subsidy no NR12-0165-10 "Innovative impact of technology and IT support of management on efficiency of production in organic farms". Average area of AL is 12.48 ha. Operating costs of the machinery park were 30 993 PLN•farm-1 which annually per one hectare of AL generates the value of PLN 3 369. Amortization constituted the highest participation in total costs, which was as much as 65.7% and energy carriers related to consumption on production of diesel oil, leaded petrol and electric energy. The highest use of manufacturing capacities of the machinery park of organic farms was reported in case of a manure spreader, presses and windrow collectors. In case of spreaders, 19 years are necessary for their total amortization, and in case of presses and windrow collectors – 20 and 21 years. In the researched organic farms, average annual rate of use of possible manufacturing capacities of the majority of machines was only 0.4-1.3%. It forces to lengthen the operating periods, which constitutes the main brake on progress.
Preconditions for modelling technological processes in organic farms, which are oriented to vegetable field production, were presented. Based on empirical data, a rotation model and technical equipment models for farms of the agricultural land area of 10, 20 and 40 ha were developed. In relation to services, they enable full mechanization of production processes. Empirical data, which constitute batch data to models were collected in organic farms, which were included in the research as a part of the project NCBiR [National Centre for Research and Development] NR12-0165-10, titled "Innovative influence of technology and information management supporting system on production efficiency in organic farms." The project was carried out within 2011-2014.
A rising trend in the number of production buildings, mainly livestock buildings, which were given for use in farming, has been at the same level for several years. The paper presents the level and structure of equipment of the selected organic farms with farm buildings and their replacement value and operating costs were calculated. The scope of research included 50 facilities located in the southern Poland, which were granted an organic farm certificate. The investigated facilities were the object of research within the development subsidy titled "Innovative influence of technology and information management supporting system on production efficiency in organic farms". The analysed data concerned 2012. For the purpose of comparative analysis the researched facilities were divided into two groups which specialize in plant and animal production. Average area of buildings was 314.45 m2 and was comparable in distinguished trend groups. In farms producing plants, storehouses prevailed and in case of animal farms – livestock buildings. Average annual replacement value of buildings was PLN 105.78 thousand and was also comparable in trend groups. In the structure of replacement value, storehouses prevailed, which constituted at the average 43.03% and livestock buildings – 37.68%. Average annual operating costs of buildings were PLN 58.61 thousand. The fact that these costs in animal farms were 2 times higher than in plant farms, should be emphasised. Renovation materials and ordered repairs constituted the highest costs.
The objective of the research consisted in comparing the operation efficiency of a separator provided with fixed screens mounted to the shoe and the one fitted with spring-mounted screens, determination of the impact of the basic kinematics parameters on the separation efficiency. Analysis was also carried out regarding the use of cylindrical spring-mounted screens and flat spring-mounted screens. The process of mass movement on the screen surface was examined also including the movement upward, downward and throwing up. The values characteristic for the separation process were output (capacity) of screens and the impurity separation degree. The analyzed kinematic parameters included: screen shoe vibration amplitude, screen vibration amplitude, screen inclination angle, screen vibration operation angle, own vibration frequency, kinematics limits coefficient. As a result, the mathematical models of separation were determined regarding the unit efficiency and the impurity separation degree. Next calculation based on these equations determined the value of the following parameters: Ap=1, 2, A=8 mm, K=2, 3, for which qF=0.72 kg∙s-1∙m-2, E=0.87. The parameters of springs ensuring proper modulus may be determined with the monogram or formula (20). According to the conducted experiments qF screen capacity depended on the straight-line basis on Ap spring stiffness, A screen shoe vibration amplitude and it increased as qF and Ap values increased. The increase was less evident in case of ω and ε value increase. Whereas the non straight-line basis and significant increase followed as the values of α and K parameter increased. Impurity separation degree E increased initially and next decreased as increase followed of spring stiffness Ap, and along with screen hopper vibration amplitude increase. This increase was less evident in case of ω frequency and ε angle increase. Separation of impurities significantly decreased in case of α and K parameter increase.
The paper verifies usefulness of the high frequency trading model developed by Marco Avellaneda and Sasha Stoikov, used in simulation of turnover with futures contract securities of one of agricultural commodities on the selected commodity stock exchange. Accuracy of provided signals of purchase and sale signals was verified on authentic quotations – the futures contract for coffee prices of the London Stock Exchange. Results of ten subsequent session days was analysed in detail. Quality of the assumed investment algorithm was determined with the use of stock exchange ratios: Information Ratio and Maximum Drawdown. A short discussion was conducted, which compared a standard investing method and the analysed model of algorithmic trading. In conclusion, all most important statements and conclusions were made, which confirmed usefulness of the HFT model developed by Marco Avellaneda and Sasha Stoikov for turnover of futures contract securities for agricultural commodities.
Elimination of light additives in the dust form from seed material is a significant problem of post-harvest seed processing since leakage of pneumatic machines systems for cleaning seeds enables dust to get outside which deteriorates the ecological condition of the surroundings. The article presents a developed machine for initial seeds cleaning, which divides air waste into fractions of seed and waste additives and purifies the air which circulates in the closed pneumatic system from silt additives, which deposit in the depositions chamber with difficulties. Models of regression of the functioning process of the developed machine were presented. Rational parameters of the inlet window of a dust collector (Δ = 0.03 m, δż = 0.012 m, Sż = 0.16 м, βP = 155°) and the edge of the partition wall of compartments of light fractions deposition (х = 0.21...0.23 m and у = 0.160...0.175 m) were determined. The developed machine improves the ecological condition of the environment concerning post-harvest seed processing systems.
Motion stability of an agricultural machine influences, in many respects, its working capacity and performance quality. Investigations into motion stability of agricultural machines in the system with a prime mover (a farm tractor) are of practical importance and a theoretical basis give a chance for a reasonable and matched choice of their design and technological factors and operation modes. The dependencies have been derived to analyze the motion stability of a sod seeder which consists of a frame with boxes for fertilizers and seeds and the drive elements on two support wheels. Rotary openers with a drive are mounted on the frame via a mobile spring suspension bracket. Analysis of the received dependencies shows that in order to maintain stable motion of seeders with active rotary openers, it is necessary to use special stabilizers-scarifiers. They perform additional tilling operations (loosening, slitting, moiling) and are placed behind active working elements of the machine. They create additional resistance compensating the pushing effect of rotary openers. The resistance value depends on the number, design parameters and operation modes of active working elements.
Paper presented the evaluation of road network for internal (farm-field) agricultural transport for selected region, Stomniki commune, of typical agricultural production profile. The evaluation was based on standard indices such as road network density, share of roads in productive area and transport difficulty coefficient. First two indices, resulted from spatial configuration of productive area and agrarian structure of the farms, at considerable variation, were contained within common stardards assumed for agricultural terrains. Much worse situation dealt with the quality of roads illustrated by transport difficulty co efficient. Because of poor quality of road surfaces in all categories the farm transport in surveyed region needs the inputs increased by 44 to 535% in comparison to good asphalt parament. These increased inputs are reflected in extended passing time (slower travelling speed) and - as the result - in less transport capacity, higher fuel consumption as well as in increased wear and considerably reduced reliability of the transport means.
Evaluation of quantity and quality of the roads for agricultural transport - inner (farm - field) and outer (farm - supply and sale point) was preformed. Evaluation of road network was based on the distance from the field, road network density, indices of road extension and transport difficulty coefficient.
In urban commune asphalt roads outnumber and in urban rural commune cart roads prevail.
There are significant differences in quantity and quality of the roads in these communes. In urban commune road network density was 1.83 km per km2 while in urban-rural - 2.72 km per km2 . Transport difficulty coefficient resulted from type of surface was equal - in horizontal level of the road - 2,29 and 2,61 appropriately.
On the basis of photographs from the whole year related to time of work of transport vehicles the impact of the method of loading and unloading on the value of expenses related to transport of unpacked root plants was determined. It was proved that loading activities make up on average 47.55% of all time of work of a vehicle and 64.10% of manpower expenses. An increase of effectiveness of loading by 10% causes a decrease of time of work of a vehicle by 0.99% and manpower expenses by 0.96%. Moreover, an increase of mechanisation indicator of loading by 10% causes that vehicle costs decrease by 3.71% and manpower costs by o 6.65%.
The paper specifies the amount of transported volume and equipment with transportation vehicles in 50 farms of the Małopolska region in the view of their production type. The evaluation included transportation and equipment on the average and in selected farm groups. As result of the analysis it was discovered that per one hectare or arable land in the tested facilities 25.64 tons of load is transported at the average equipment with transportation vehicles at 0.48 pieces/ha and the admissible load 1.21 t/ha. Additionally the type structure of held transportation means was specified.
The purpose of the paper was evaluation of technology in agricultural transport. It was proved that technology of transportation significantly influences the efficiency and quantity of inputs. The efficiency was highest during direct loading from a combine harvester and unloading by turning over. The lowest inputs were during loading with a grab loader and unloading by a floor conveyor.
The paper presents the effect of loading mechanization on the productivity of transport and labour demand in agricultural transport. The study revealed considerable effect of loading and unloading method on the parameters evaluated. It has, among others, been found that the efficiency of means of transport is more considerably affected by the unloading than by the loading.
The paper presents the effect of loading mechanization on the expenditure and productivity of transport in a form of correlation and regression. The expenditure and efficiency of transport have been found largely dependent upon the efficiency of loading, unloading and that of workers employed for handling operations.
The paper demonstrates the availability and utilization of loading machinery based on the example 30 chosen of farms in Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The survey has revealed high availability of loading and unloading means accompanied by very low annual utilization rate of these. Moreover, the level of loading mechanization together with the purchase of production means, reached 68.6%, and 75.0% for sales of the crops.
The assessment compares green land renewal by mineral fertilising, and subsoiling and sowing in relation to the controlled object. The study was conducted on a permanent pasture in mountainous region (640 m above sea level). The subject of the study was yielding of the basic ingredients of the gathered green forage. It specified the costs of harvesting dry matter crops, crude protein and net energy lactation as well as the costs borne in particular combinations.
Two technologies of harvesting grass for seeds have been evaluated. Two species of grass have been tested: meadow fescue – Festuca pratensis Huds. and timothy - Phleum pratense L. It has been proven that, in terms of loss of seeds and their quality, single-phase harvesting is recommended for the meadow fescue, and two-phase harvesting for the timothy. Two-phase harvesting, as compared to the single-phase one, was characterized by greater labour (man-hours) and energy (kWh) demand. The differences expressed in directed numbers were for both species respectively 7.4% and 8.6%.
The paper presents input assumptions for the program optimizing selection of the number of means of transport with respect to performance. It describes methods and criteria for optimization of agricultural transport (selection of means of transport) and characterizes basic elements affecting the basic optimizing criterion i.e. the transport performance.
The paper presents the authoring computer program "Agregat-2" intended for calculation of transport unit performance. The program enables calculation of work cycle of the mean of transport working under different conditions. Application of the program may facilitate selection of the means of transport for the farmstead.
The study carried out revealed that, among the tractor sets, the greatest expenditure of both labour and time for comparable transport distance, occurred while using tractor cars or, if trucks are concerned, a delivery truck The lowest work time demand, however, occurred in the case of transport with a tractor and two trailers or a truck with a trailer.
The study includes an analysis of four preservation technologies of grassland fodder. Hay production on meadow surface and on hay poles, and silages made in a bunker silo and in large cylindrical packs wrapped in plastic film were compared. The research was made in Beskid Niski region in two farms. The subject matter of the study were the technologies of drying and ensilage of plants on permanent meadows and alternating first regrowth meadows. Harvesting costs of dry mass, general protein and energy net lactation were assessed and the structure of the specific activities in those technologies was presented.
The paper covers the analysis of the four technologies of preservation of feeds from grasslands. Comparison was made for production of hey on a meadow area and rafters and silage made in mobile silos and large cylindrical bales wrapped with foil. The result of the performed tests allowed to set out losses of drawing organic and minerals components resulting from preservation technology and applied agrotechnical procedures.
The paper specifies technological progress indices for selected technologies of corn growing and shows to what degree transport works affect the progress. The studies were performed in 30 farmsteads located in the area of Małopolska. The technological progress was expressed in the economical and power aspect. Whereas the share of transport works on achieved progress was given in percentage value. The studies demonstrated that transport works had significant effect on technological progress in corn growing technologies.
The main issue presented in the paper are the guidelines for establishing and starting up the Information Portal of Polish Association of Agricultural Engineering (PTIR). The work shows statutory principles of the Association and portal work scheme.
The work presents storage potential and its utilization in farms characterised by multidirectional production profile. Completed tests show that storage potential in the analysed facilities was close to 202.1m2 and grew with increasing farm surface area. Storage area utilization level reached 55.6%. Largest part of total storage area was occupied by agricultural products: 54.3%, and smallest part – by means of production: 10.6%.
Current (2006) cost level and forms of transport service in 30 selected farmsteads located in the southern part of Poland were presented. Current outfitting of analyzed facilities with tractive force and transport means were specified. Costs and forms of transport works execution were presented in the aspect of farmstead size and production commodity. It was shown that cost of transport service reached 1723 PLN/haUR and decreased along with the increase of farmstead area and production commodity.
The paper presents evaluation of criteria for selection of farm produce users in farmsteads with multiprofile production. Based on the surveys performed in 30 farmsteads basic criteria having effect on selecting users were assessed. The survey showed that the basic selection criterion was the price (price level and price negotiability), and factor which had little effect on selecting the users turned out to be reliability of services rendered and time of product reception.
The work analyzes four methods of mowing pasture using three different types of mowers. A comparison was made for mowing using spindle mower to a cutting height of 3 cm, rotary mower to 6 cm and 9 cm and scythe mower to 12 cm. The point of reference was a control variant, for which mowing was not done. Based on the result of the performed tests a number of vascular plant species and value of use of pasture for individual variants were determined.
The paper presents magnitude and structure of raw material and other supply flows within supply organization of farms as well as the warehousing facilitation and its use. The research was conducted based on a sample of 30 farms located in the Region of Małopolska. It indicated that these farms were purchasing 3.4 tons per hectare of both agricultural and non-agricultural production means on the average; whereas 17.6% appeared to be direct materials and raw materials, while 82.4% were classified as indirect materials. The direct means of production were purchased 2 times a year on the average, and time of storage did not exceed 3 months. On the other hand, the indirect production means were purchased also 3 times a year, but the storage time was much longer – up to 8 months.
The project encompassed three methods of mowing the meadow grass using various mowers. Three types of mowers: bar type, drum mower and disc mower with mulching action were compared. The hay dried out in a drier was used as a benchmark. The hay content of nutrients coming from various methods of mowing was determined as a result of the experiment.
The work includes analysis of three technologies of the crop of low-stalk green fodders in terms of the quality. Three rolling presses that differ in the kind of rolling chamber were used in this experience (rolling chamber, cylindrical–chain and cylindrical–chain with the cutting Power Cut set). On the basis of field experiences and laboratory tests, losses of nutrients resulting from the applied echnology of harvesting were determined. It was also stated that the best quality silage was received n the D variant, in which the rolling press with the cutting entrance material set was applied.
The study presents the main sources of waste, including package waste, methods of storage and management of waste, and of the level of segregation and recycling of packages. The scope of the survey covers 50 farms with different production types. It was found, among others, that the main source of waste and package waste is production activity and existence-related activities and average mass of waste was depending on the production type from 0.1 to 1.1 t•ha-1 of agricultural land. The most often used method of waste management was to throw waste to own rubbish container and the least used method was waste management to a collective container or to containers destined for waste selection.
Completed research has proven that farms are well-equipped with means of transport. Best-equipped farms, both regarding quantity and quality, were those specialised in field crops. The worst equipment was reported in multidirectional farms. Annual utilization of tractors ranged from 865 to 429 hours, cars - from 469 to 54 hours, delivery trucks/vans - from 582 to 178 hours, and trucks - from 107 to 101 hours. Depending on a farm specialization, there is from 0.4 to 1.2 loading or unloading unit to one transport vehicle, on average.
The paper presents a design of the system allowing to make articles published in the “Inżynieria Rolnicza” [“Agricultural Engineering”] journal available through the Internet. The design required a concept and technical part of the system to be developed, and then a completed solution (using the PHP and popular database technologies) to be implemented. The basic functionality of already operating system includes: publishing of articles (in digital formats), indexing (in metadata form) of the most important information concerning the publications, and making it possible to search through the sets.
The paper presents place and role of logistic infrastructure in farm functioning. The researchers characterised individual logistic infrastructure elements by determining their function and tasks through empirical studies carried out in 50 farm enterprises located in southern Poland.
The study contains: formal and legal determinants of the PTIR, the scope of implementation of demands and conclusions from previous reporting-election meeting, organisational structure of the Society, and financial operations of the PTIR.
The study presents the level of equipment and use of information infrastructure on farms with different type of agricultural production. Equipment is presented as percentage share and the use - as the level of inventory of logistic processes and frequency of use of particular elements of information infrastructure.